Guide to TensorFlow* Runtime optimizations for CPU

Published:07/30/2020   Last Updated:07/30/2020


Runtime settings can greatly affect the performance of TensorFlow* workloads running on CPUs, particularly regarding threading.

OpenMP* and TensorFlow both have settings that should be considered for their effect on performance. The Intel® Math Kernel Library for Deep Neural Networks (Intel® MKL-DNN) within the Intel® Optimization for TensorFlow* uses OpenMP settings as environment variables to affect performance on Intel CPUs. TensorFlow has a class (ConfigProto or config depeding on version) with settings that affect performance.

This guide will describe the settings, usage and how to apply the them.

OpenMP* settings descriptions

    • Maximum number of threads to use for OpenMP parallel regions if no other value is specified in the application.
    • Recommend: start with the number of physical cores/socket on the test system, and try increasing and decreasing
    • Time, in milliseconds, that a thread should wait, after completing the execution of a parallel region, before sleeping.
    • Recommend: start with 1 and try increasing
    • Restricts execution of certain threads to a subset of the physical processing units in a multiprocessor computer. Only valid if Hyperthreading is enabled.
    • Recommend: granularity=fine,verbose,compact,1,0
    • Enables (TRUE) or disables (FALSE) printing of OpenMP run-time library environment variables during execution
    • Recommend: Start with TRUE to ensure settings are being utilized, then use as needed

How to apply OpenMP settings

These settings are applied as environment variables

  • Can be set in shell
    • Example:
  • Can be set in Python code
    • Example:
import os
os.environ["OMP_NUM_THREADS"] = “16”

TensorFlow* settings

  • intra_op_parallelism_threads
    • Number of threads used within an individual op for parallelism
    • Recommend: start with the number of cores/socket on the test system, and try increasing and decreasing
  • inter_op_parallelism_threads
    • Number of threads used for parallelism between independent operations.
    • Recommend: start with the number of physical cores on the test system, and try increasing and decreasing
  • device_count
    • Maximum number of devices (CPUs in this case) to use
    • Recommend: start with the number of cores/socket on the test system, and try increasing and decreasing
  • allow_soft_placement
    • Set to True/enabled to facilitate operations to be placed on CPU instead of GPU

How to apply TensorFlow settings

These settings are applied in Python* code using Config Proto or config

  • Example in TensorFlow version 1.X:
import tensorflow as tf
config = tf.ConfigProto(intra_op_parallelism_threads=16, inter_op_parallelism_threads=2, allow_soft_placement=True, device_count = {'CPU': 16})
session = tf.Session(config=config)
  • Example in TensorFlow 2.X:
import tensorflow as tf


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Product and Performance Information


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