Developer Guide and Reference

Contents

Ahead of Time Compilation

Ahead of Time (AOT) Compilation is a feature that is helpful in your development lifecycle or distribution time, when you know beforehand what your target device is going to be at application execution time. The AOT feature provides the following benefits:
  • No additional compilation time is done when running your application.
  • No just-in-time (JIT) bugs encountered due to compilation for the target device, because this step is skipped with AOT compilation.
  • Your final code, executing on the target device, can be tested as-is before you deliver it to end-users.
The program built with AOT compilation for a specific target device will not run on a non-specific device. You must detect the proper target device at runtime and report an error if the targeted device is not present. The use of exception handling with an asynchronous exception handler is recommended.
Data Parallel C++ (
DPC++
)
supports AOT compilation for the following targets: Intel® CPUs, Intel® Processor Graphics (Gen9 or above), and Intel® FPGA.

Prerequisites

To use the AOT feature for targeting a GPU, you must have the OCLOC tool installed. Refer to the Intel® oneAPI Toolkit Installation Guide's section: Install OpenCL™ Offline Compiler (OCLOC) to install the tool on your operating system.

How to Use AOT for the Target Device (Intel® CPUs)

The supported options are:
  • -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice
  • -Xs "-march=<arch>"
    , where
    <arch>
    is one of the following:
    Switch
    Display Name
    avx
    Intel® Advanced Vector Extensions (Intel® AVX)
    avx2
    Intel® Advanced Vector Extensions 2 (Intel® AVX2)
    avx512
    Intel® Advanced Vector Extensions 512 (Intel® AVX-512)
    sse4.2
    Intel® Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.2 (Intel® SSE4.2)
Examples:
  • Linux*:
    dpcpp -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" main.cpp
  • Windows*:
    dpcpp /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" test_cpu.cpp
Building an Application with Multiple Source Files for CPU Targeting
Method 1:
Compile your normal files (with no
DPC++
kernels) first to create host objects. Then compile the file with the kernel code, and link it with the rest of the application in one command line.
  • Linux:
    1. dpcpp -c main.cpp
    2. dpcpp -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" mandel.cpp main.o
  • Windows:
    1. dpcpp -c /EHsc main.cpp
    2. dpcpp /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" mandel.cpp -link main.obj
Method 2:
Compile the file with the kernel code first, and create a fat object. Then compile the rest of the files, and do the linking in one command line to create a fat executable:
  • Linux:
    1. dpcpp -c -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" mandel.cpp
    2. dpcpp main.cpp mandel.o
  • Windows:
    1. dpcpp -c /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_x86_64-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-march=avx2" mandel.cpp
    2. dpcpp /EHsc main.cpp mandel.obj
Currently, Method 2 only works on a HOST selector.

How to Use AOT for Intel® Integrated Graphics (Intel® GPU)

The supported options are:
  • -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice
  • -Xs "-device <arch>"
    option, where
    <arch>
    is one of the following:
    Switch
    Display Name
    skl
    6th generation Intel® Core™ Processor (Skylake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen9)
    kbl
    7th generation Intel® Core™ Processor (Kaby Lake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen9)
    cfl
    8th generation Intel® Core™ Processor (Coffee Lake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen9)
    glk
    Gemini Lake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen9
    icllp
    10th generation Intel® Core™ Processor (Ice Lake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen11)
    tgllp
    11th generation Intel® Core™ Processor (Tiger Lake with Intel® Processor Graphics Gen12)
    dg1
    Intel® Iris® X
    e
    MAX Graphics Family
    Gen9
    Intel® Processor Graphics Gen9
    Gen11
    Intel® Processor Graphics Gen11
    Gen12HP
    Intel® Processor Graphics Gen12 (Higher Performance)
    Gen12LP
    Intel® Processor Graphics Gen12 (Lower Power)
To see all the device types, use the following command:
ocloc compile --help
If multiple target devices are listed, the
Intel® oneAPI
DPC++/C++
Compiler
compiles for each of these targets and creates a fat-binary that contains all of the device binaries produced this way.
Examples of supported
-device
patterns:
  • Linux:
    • To compile for a single target, using
      skl
      as an example, use:
      dpcpp -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device skl" vector-add.cpp
    • To compile for two targets, using
      skl
      and
      icllp
      as examples, use:
      dpcpp -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device skl,icllp" vector-add.cpp
    • To compile for all the targets known to OCLOC, use:
      dpcpp -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device *" vector-add.cpp
  • Windows:
    • To compile for a single target, using
      skl
      as an example, use:
      dpcpp /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device skl" vector-add.cpp
    • To compile for two targets, using
      skl
      and
      icllp
      as examples, use:
      dpcpp /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device skl,icllp" vector-add.cpp
    • To compile for all the targets known to OCLOC, use:
      dpcpp /EHsc -fsycl-targets=spir64_gen-unknown-unknown-sycldevice -Xs "-device *" vector-add.cpp

Product and Performance Information

1

Performance varies by use, configuration and other factors. Learn more at www.Intel.com/PerformanceIndex.