User Guide

Contents

Front-End Bound

Metric Description

Front-End Bound metric represents a slots fraction where the processor's Front-End undersupplies its Back-End. Front-End denotes the first part of the processor core responsible for fetching operations that are executed later on by the Back-End part. Within the Front-End, a branch predictor predicts the next address to fetch, cache-lines are fetched from the memory subsystem, parsed into instructions, and lastly decoded into micro-ops (uOps). Front-End Bound metric denotes unutilized issue-slots when there is no Back-End stall (bubbles where Front-End delivered no uOps while Back-End could have accepted them). For example, stalls due to instruction-cache misses would be categorized as Front-End Bound.

Possible Issues

A significant portion of Pipeline Slots is remaining empty due to issues in the Front-End.

Tips

Make sure the code working size is not too large, the code layout does not require too many memory accesses per cycle to get enough instructions for filling four pipeline slots, or check for microcode assists.

Product and Performance Information

1

Intel's compilers may or may not optimize to the same degree for non-Intel microprocessors for optimizations that are not unique to Intel microprocessors. These optimizations include SSE2, SSE3, and SSSE3 instruction sets and other optimizations. Intel does not guarantee the availability, functionality, or effectiveness of any optimization on microprocessors not manufactured by Intel. Microprocessor-dependent optimizations in this product are intended for use with Intel microprocessors. Certain optimizations not specific to Intel microarchitecture are reserved for Intel microprocessors. Please refer to the applicable product User and Reference Guides for more information regarding the specific instruction sets covered by this notice.

Notice revision #20110804