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The <ruby> tag and its two children <rt> and <rp> are completely new in HTML5. In fact, this is the only major feature to have come from XHTML 1.1 into HTML5. Ruby stands for "Ruby annotations", which are small, annotative glosses used in East Asian typography. They are used as pronunciation help for relatively obscure characters.
The <rt> tag stands for "ruby text" and is used as pronunciation aid to the character(s) defined in the enclosing <ruby> tag. The <rp> is used to mark up ruby parenthesis, which is basically a precaution measure for browsers that do not support the <ruby> tag.
Ruby tag does not have any specific attributes, it does however support global and event attributes.
漢 <rp>(</rp><rt> ㄏㄢˋ </rt><rp>)</rp>
漢 ( ㄏㄢˋ )
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