Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition Fortran - Debug Solutions Release Notes

This page provides the current Release Notes for the Debug Solutions from Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition for Fortran Linux*, Windows* and OS X*/macOS* products.

To get product updates, log in to the Intel® Software Development Products Registration Center.

For questions or technical support, visit Intel® Software Products Support.

For the top-level Release Notes, visit:

Table of Contents:

Change History

This section highlights important from the previous product version and changes in product updates.

Changes since Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2016 Composer Edition

  • Fortran Expression Evaluator (FEE):
    • Added support for displaying extended types that are parameterized
    • Added the ability in FEE to change the format in which a value is displayed in the debugger windows (e.g.: Watch, Immediate) by using format  specifiers (specified here). The supported format specifiers are "x","s","d","o","c","e","g", and "f".
    • Display of array dimensions in the "Value" column of the Watch and Locals views and in array tooltips.
    • Added support for viewing a particular element of a data structure across an array of such structures (e.g. students(1:100:1)%name). Value assignment to this type of expressions is not supported, though.
    • Modified to display character variable data that contain nulls. Editing of null containing string is disabled in the Watch and  Locals views. Editing in the memory window is still possible.
  • Simplified Eclipse* plug-in
  • Support for Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor & processor X200 offload debugging
  • Shipping GNU* Project Debugger (GDB) 7.10 (except for Intel® Debugger for Heterogeneous Compute 2017)
  • Improved Fortran Variable Length Array support for GNU* Project Debugger

Product Contents

  • Linux*:
    • GNU* Project Debugger (GDB) 7.10:
      Command line for host CPU and Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor, and Eclipse* IDE plugin for offload enabled applications.
  • OS X*/macOS*:
    • GNU* Project Debugger (GDB) 7.10:
      Command line for CPU only.
  • Windows*:
    • Intel® Debugger Extension for Intel® Many Integrated Core Architecture (Intel® MIC Architecture)
    • Fortran Expression Evaluator (FEE) as extension to debugger of Microsoft Visual Studio* 

GNU* GDB

This section summarizes the changes, new features, customizations and known issues related to the GNU* GDB provided with Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition.
 

Features

GNU* GDB provided with Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition and above is based on GDB 7.10 with additional enhancements provided by Intel. This debugger replaces the Intel® Debugger from previous releases. In addition to features found in GDB 7.10, there are several other new features:
  • Intel® Processor Trace (Intel® PT) support for 5th generation Intel® Core™ Processors:
    (gdb) record btrace pt
  • Support for Intel® Many Integrated Core Architecture (Intel® MIC Architecture) of Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor X100
  • Support for Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor & processor X200
  • Support for Intel® Transactional Synchronization Extensions (Intel® TSX) (Linux & OSX)
  • Register support for Intel® Memory Protection Extensions (Intel® MPX) and Intel® Advanced Vector Extensions 512 (Intel® AVX-512)
  • Data Race Detection (pdbx):
    Detect and locate data races for applications threaded using POSIX* thread (pthread) or OpenMP* models
  • Branch Trace Store (btrace):
    Record branches taken in the execution flow to backtrack easily after events like crashes, signals, exceptions, etc.
All features are available for Linux*, but only Intel® TSX is supported for OS X*/macOS*.
 

Using GNU* GDB

GNU* GDB provided with Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition comes in different versions:
  • IA-32/Intel® 64 debugger:
    Debug applications natively on IA-32 or Intel® 64 systems with gdb-ia on the command line.
    A standard Eclipse* IDE can be used for this as well if a graphical user interface is desired.
  • Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor debugger (only for Linux*):
    Debug applications remotely on Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor systems. The debugger will run on a host system and a debug agent (gdbserver) on the coprocessor.
    There are two options:
    • Use the command line version of the debugger with gdb-mic.
      This only works for native Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor X100 applications. For Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor & processor X200 use gdb-ia.
      A standard Eclipse* IDE can be used for this as well if a graphical user interface is desired.
    • Use an Eclipse* IDE plugin shipped with Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 Composer Edition.
      This works only for offload enabled Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor applications. Instructions on how to use GNU* GDB can be found in the Documentation section.

Documentation

The documentation for the provided GNU* GDB can be found here:
<install-dir>/documentation_2017/en/debugger/gdb-ia/gdb.pdf
<install-dir>/documentation_2017/en/debugger/gdb-mic/gdb.pdf
<install-dir>/documentation_2017/en/debugger/ps2017/get_started.htm

The latter is available online as well:

Known Issues and Changes

Not found: libncurses.so.5

On some systems, using the GNU* GDB version that is provided by Intel, fails due to a missing libncurses.so.5 (e.g. Fedora 24 and 25). Please install the package ncurses-compat-libs which provides the missing library.

Not found: libtinfo.so.5

On some systems, using the GNU* GDB version that is provided by Intel, fails due to a missing libtinfo.so.5 (e.g. SLES 11 SP3). If a package for libtinfo is not available, the following workaround can be applied:

$ sudo ln -s <path>/libncurses.so.5.6 <path>/libtinfo.so.5

As <path>, use the location of the system's ncurses library.

Safely ending offload debug sessions

To avoid issues like orphan processes or stale debugger windows when ending offload applications, manually end the debugging session before the application is reaching its exit code. The following procedure is recommended for terminating a debug session:
  1. Manually stop a debug session before the application reaches the exit-code.
  2. When stopped, press the red stop button in the tool-bar in the Intel® MIC Architecture-side debugger first. This will end the offloaded part of the application.
  3. Next, do the same for the CPU-side debugger.
  4. The link between the two debuggers will be kept alive. The Intel® MIC Architecture-side debugger will stay connected to the debug agent and the application will remain loaded in the CPU-side debugger, including all breakpoints that have been set.
  5. At this point, both debugger windows can safely be closed.

Intel® MIC Architecture-side debugger asserts on setting source directories

Setting source directories in the GNU* GDB might lead to an assertion.
Resolution:
The assertion should not affect debugger operation. To avoid the assertion anyway, don’t use source directory settings. The debugger will prompt you to browse for files it cannot locate automatically.
 

Debugger and debugged application required to be located on local drive (OS X*/macOS* only)

In order to use the provided GNU* GDB (gdb-ia), it has to be installed on a local drive. As such, the entire Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 package has to be installed locally. Any application that is being debugged needs to be located on a local drive as well. This is a general requirement that’s inherent to GNU GDB with OS X*/macOS*.
 

Debugging Fortran applications with Eclipse* IDE plugin for Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor

If the Eclipse* IDE plugin for the Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor is used for debugging Fortran applications, evaluation of arrays in the locals window might be incorrect. The underlying CDT applies the C/C++ syntax with brackets to arrays to retrieve their contents. This does not work for Fortran.
Solution: Use a fully qualified Fortran expression to retrieve the contents of arrays (e.g. with array sections like array(1:10)).
 

Debugged application cannot be started (macOS* only)

If the debugged application terminates immediately at startup with an error message like the following, debugging has been deactivated by the "System Integrity Protection":

(gdb) r
Starting program: <application>
During startup program terminated with signal SIGTRAP, Trace/breakpoint trap.

To enable debugging do the following:

  1. Go to the recovery mode (e.g. command key + r) and start a terminal there
  2. At this terminal, enter csrutil enable --without debug
  3. After rebooting, the following should be visible with command csrutil status:
    Debugging Restrictions: disabled
 
This section summarizes new features and changes, usage and known issues related to the Intel® Debugger Extension. This debugger extension only supports code targeting Intel® Many Integrated Core Architecture (Intel® MIC Architecture).
 

Features

  • Support for both native Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor applications and host applications with offload extensions
  • Debug multiple Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessors at the same time (with offload extension)

Using the Intel® Debugger Extension

The Intel® Debugger Extension is a plug-in for the Microsoft Visual Studio* IDE. It transparently enables debugging of projects defined by  that IDE. Applications for Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessors can be either loaded and executed or attached to. This extension supports debugging of offload enabled code, using:
  • Microsoft Visual Studio* 2012
  • Microsoft Visual Studio* 2013
  • Microsoft Visual Studio* 2015

Documentation

The full documentation for the Intel® Debugger Extension can be found here:
<install-dir>\documentation_2017\en\debugger\ps2017\get_started.htm

This is available online as well:

Known Issues and Limitations

  • Disassembly window cannot be scrolled outside of 1024 bytes from the starting address within an offload section.
  • Handling of exceptions from the Intel® MIC Architecture application is not supported.
  • Starting an Intel® MIC Architecture native application is not supported. You can attach to a currently running application, though.
  • The Thread Window in Microsoft Visual Studio* offers context menu actions to Freeze, Thaw and Rename threads. These context menu actions are not functional when the thread is on an Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor.
  • Setting a breakpoint right before an offload section sets a breakpoint at the first statement of the offload section. This only is true if there is no statement for the host between set breakpoint and offload section. This is normal Microsoft Visual Studio* breakpoint behavior but might become more visible with interweaved code from host and Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor. The superfluous breakpoint for the offload section can be manually disabled (or removed) if desired.
  • Only Intel® 64 applications containing offload sections can be debugged with the Intel® Debugger Extension for Intel® Many Integrated Core Architecture.
  • Stepping out of an offload section does not step back into the host code. It rather continues execution without stopping (unless another event occurs). This is intended behavior.
  • The functionality “Set Next Statement” is not working within an offload section.
  • If breakpoints have been set for an offload section in a project already, starting the debugger might show bound breakpoints without addresses. Those do not have an impact on functionality.
  • For offload sections, using breakpoints with the following conditions of hit counts do not work: “break when the hit count is equal to” and “break when the hit count is a multiple of”.
  • The following options in the Disassembly window do not work within offload sections: “Show Line Numbers”, “Show Symbol Names” and “Show Source Code”
  • Evaluating variables declared outside the offload section shows wrong values.
  • Please consult the Output (Debug) window for detailed reporting. It will name unimplemented features (see above) or provide additional information required to configuration problems in a debugging session. You can open the window in Microsoft Visual Studio* via menu Debug->Windows->Output.
  • When debugging an offload-enabled application and a variable assignment is entered in the Immediate Window, the debugger may hang if assignments read memory locations before writing to them (for example, x=x+1). Please do not use the Immediate Window for changing variable values for offload-enabled applications.
  • Depending on the debugger extensions provided by Intel, the behavior (for example, run control) and output (for example, disassembly) could differ from what is experienced with the Microsoft Visual Studio* debugger. This is because of the different debugging technologies implemented by each and should not have a significant impact to the debugging experience.

Fortran Expression Evaluator (FEE) for debugging Fortran applications with Microsoft Visual Studio*

Fortran Expression Evaluator (FEE) is a plug-in for Microsoft Visual Studio* that is installed with Intel® Visual Fortran Compiler. It extends the standard debugger in Microsoft Visual Studio* IDE by handling Fortran expressions. There is no other change in usability.

Known Issues and Limitations

Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Shell* does not work

To enable FEE with Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Shell, you need to move both files ForIntrinsics.dll and ForOps11.dll from:

<Program Files (x86) Directory>\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\Common7\IDE\Remote Debugger\x64

to:

<Program Files Directory>\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\Common7\IDE\Remote Debugger\x64

After that, restart your Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Shell to use FEE. This will be fixed in a future update release.

Conditional breakpoints limited

Conditional breakpoints that contain expressions with allocatable variables are not supported for Microsoft Visual Studio 2012* or later.

Debugging might fail when only Microsoft Visual Studio 2013/2015* is installed

For some FEE functionality the Microsoft Visual Studio 2012* libraries are required. One solution is to install Microsoft Visual Studio 2012* in addition to Microsoft Visual Studio 2013/2015*. An alternative is to join the Visual Studio Dev Essentials (free) and install the "Visual C++ Redistributable for Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 Update 4" that you will find in the Downloads section.
If you installed Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2017 on a system without any Microsoft Visual Studio* version available, a Microsoft Visual Studio 2013* Shell (incl. libraries) will be installed. It might be that FEE does not work in that environment. Please install the redistributable package mentioned above in addition to enable FEE. A future update will solve this problem for the installation of the shell.

Debugging mixed language programs with Fortran does not work

To enable debugging Fortran code called from a .NET managed code application in Visual Studio 2012 or later, unset the following configuration:
Menu Tools->Options, under section Debugging->General, clear the "Managed C++ Compatibility Mode" or "Use Managed Compatibility Mode" check box

For any managed code application, one must also check the project property Debug > Enable unmanaged code debugging.

Native edit and continue

With Microsoft Visual Studio 2015*, Fortran debugging of mixed code applications is enabled if "native edit and continue" is enabled for the C/C++ part of the code. In earlier versions this is not supported.

FEE truncates entries in locals window

To increase debugging performance, the maximum number of locals queried by the debug engine is limited with Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2016 and later releases. If a location in the source code has more than that number of locals, they are truncated and a note is shown:

Note: Too many locals! For performance reasons the list got cut after 500 entries!

The threshold can be controlled via the environment variable FEE_MAX_LOCALS. Specify a positive value for the new threshold (default is 500). A value of -1 can be used to turn off truncation entirely (restores previous behavior) - but at the cost of slower debug state transitions. In order to take effect, Microsoft Visual Studio* needs to be restarted.

Problem with debugging C# applications

If Microsoft Visual Studio 2015* is used, debugging of C# applications might cause problems, i.e. evaluations like watches won't work.If you experience issues like that, try to enable "Managed Compatibility Mode". More details how to enable it can be found here:
http://blogs.msdn.com/b/visualstudioalm/archive/2013/10/16/switching-to-managed-compatibility-mode-in-visual-studio-2013.aspx

The problem is known and will be fixed with a future version.

Attributions

This product includes software developed at:

GDB – The GNU* Project Debugger

Copyright Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St - Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License, version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St - Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

GNU* Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

 

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>

 

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

 

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

 

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

 

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

 

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

 

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

 

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

 

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

 

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

 

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

 

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

 

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 

11. RELICENSING

"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

 

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