# Best function for inplace matrix addition (w. stride)

## Best function for inplace matrix addition (w. stride)

I often need to calculate the sum of a set of matrices or submatrices of a dataset. Unfortunately the two matrices do not always have the same stride, when I am selectively using a subset of a large dataset, which means I have to resort to calculating the sum by hand (alternatively, I could call vkadd or similar once per row, I'm not sure how much overhead this implies when calling vkadd 500 or 1000 times for a 500x500 matrix).

I am aware of the mkl_?omatadd function, but the documentation states that the input and output arrays cannot overlap, which means I would need an extra temporary matrix. While I would assume calculating A = A + m * B works inplace when not transposing matrices, unless this can be guaranteed for all future versions I cannot use that approach.

Are there any other functions which could be used for this calculation I have missed?

14 posts / 0 new
For more complete information about compiler optimizations, see our Optimization Notice.

Hi Henrik,

BLAS level 1 functions ?axpy may help you, as they do in-place operation on vectors: y=a*x + y. When applied row-by-row (or col-by-col) in a loop, this operation can accomodate any combination of strides. The loop may be sped up by parallelization with '#pragma omp parallel for'.

Dima

>>I often need to calculate the sum of a set of matrices or submatrices of a dataset...

Matrix additions and subtractions are at the core of Strassen's algorithm for matrix multiplication. I've spent a significant amount of time on implementation ( 4 different versions ) and optimization of these algorithms. I'd like to give you two really small examples:

[ Version 1 - Template based compiled with /O2 or /O3 ( aggressive ) optimizations ]
...
{
#ifdef _RTMATRIXSET_DIAGNOSTICS
RTuint64 uiClockS = CrtRdtsc();
#endif

RTuint i;
RTuint j;

for( i = 0; i < uiSize; i++ )
{
for( j = 0; j < uiSize; j += 4 )
{
register T tS0 = tA[i][j ] + tB[i][j ];
register T tS1 = tA[i][j+1] + tB[i][j+1];
register T tS2 = tA[i][j+2] + tB[i][j+2];
register T tS3 = tA[i][j+3] + tB[i][j+3];
tC[i][j ] = tS0;
tC[i][j+1] = tS1;
tC[i][j+2] = tS2;
tC[i][j+3] = tS3;
}
}

#ifdef _RTMATRIXSET_DIAGNOSTICS
RTuint64 uiClockE = CrtRdtsc();
CrtPrintf( RTU("Add - Completed in %.3f ms\n"), ( RTfloat )( uiClockE - uiClockS ) / 1000000.0f );
#endif
};
...

and

[ Version 2 - IPP based with ippsAdd_32f function ]
...
{
#ifdef _RTMATRIXSET_DIAGNOSTICS
RTuint64 uiClockS = CrtRdtsc();
#endif

RTuint i;

for( i = 0; i < uiSize; i++ )
{
::ippsAdd_32f( ( const float * )&tA[i][0], ( const float * )&tB[i][0], ( float * )&tC[i][0], ( RTint )uiSize );
}

#ifdef _RTMATRIXSET_DIAGNOSTICS
RTuint64 uiClockE = CrtRdtsc();
CrtPrintf( RTU("Add - Completed in %.3f ms\n"), ( RTfloat )( uiClockE - uiClockS ) / 1000000.0f );
#endif
};
...

After extensive testing on several hardware platforms, like Ivy Bridge, Atom, Pentium 4, I din't see a significant difference in performance between these two very simple functions. I could easily post real performance numbers for any mentioned platforms ( if you need, of course ).

>>...I am aware of the mkl_?omatadd function, but the documentation states that the input and output arrays
>>cannot overlap...

I'm considering to try that function ( for tests only ).

>>...The loop may be sped up by parallelization with '#pragma omp parallel for'...

It is a very useful for large matricies but there is a question here: Does it make sence to do it for two 500x500 matricies?

I'll post tomorrow performance numbers for addition of two 512x512 matricies ( without OpenMP ) on Ivy Bridge system.

Thanks for the replies.

Dmitry: I think that would be almost identical to using vkadd, the blas function has the additional scaling factor but I am assuming it also contains an optimized case for unscaled addition.

Sergey: That code actually looks very similar to my current approach - I have a function which does addition of double vectors using unrolled SSE intrinsics, and am calling that function on a row by row basis. Assuming sufficient compiler optimization the resulting asm of your first function should look very similar. (Ignoring the missing special cases for lengths != 4 * N). My main problem is when I have to offset one of the matrices by an odd number of columns and the other by an even number of columns, then the data alignment can'\t be matched and I have to fall back to slower code.

I must admit I havn't tested multithreading yet, I have been working under the assumption that the overhead for spinning up/switching to threads is larger than the savings for these small matrix sizes.

>>...My main problem is when I have to offset one of the matrices by an odd number of columns and the other by an even number of
>>columns, then the data alignment can't be matched and I have to fall back to slower code...

It is Not clear how you've created your matricies. I'd like to share some experience and two different versions are used:

[ Version 1 ]

Some template class for a Matrix
{
...
_RTALIGN32 T *m_ptData1D;
_RTALIGN32 T **m_ptData2D;
...
};

Some method for initialization
...
m_ptData1D = ( T * )CrtMalloc( m_uiSize * sizeof( T ) );
if( m_ptData1D == RTnull )
return ( RTbool )RTfalse;

m_ptData2D = ( T ** )CrtMalloc( m_uiRows * sizeof( T * ) );
if( m_ptData2D == RTnull )
return ( RTbool )RTfalse;

T *ptData = m_ptData1D;

for( RTuint i = 0; i < m_uiRows; i++ )
{
m_ptData2D[i] = ptData;
ptData += m_uiCols;
}
...

As you can see there are two pointers, ptData1D and ptData2D, and the underlying 1D array for a 2D array is a Contiguos and Always Aligned.

[ Version 2 ]

Some template class for a Data set of two matricies
{
...
_RTALIGN32 T **Tmp[2];
...
};

Some method for initialization
...
for( i = 0; i < 2; i++ )
{
Tmp[i] = ( T ** )CrtCalloc( uiSize, sizeof( T * ) );
if( Tmp[i] == RTnull )
return ( RTbool )RTfalse;
for( j = 0; j < uiSize; j++ )
{
Tmp[i][j] = ( T * )CrtCalloc( uiSize, sizeof( T ) );
if( Tmp[i][j] == RTnull )
return ( RTbool )RTfalse;
}
}
...

As you can see during initialization an array of pointers for rows is allocated and then every row of size uiSize with a number of elements of type T is allocated ( represents a 2-D matrix, or a 2-D data set, or a 2-D image ).

In both cases all pointers are alligned and with agressive optimizations by C++ compilers ( any! ) speed ups are significant (!). I remember that Not optimized and Not alligned versions worked for about 29 minutes in some cases. When all optimizations are On the same code works in less then 3 minutes.

>>My main problem is when I have to offset one of the matrices by an odd number of columns and the other by an even
>>number of columns, then the data alignment can'\t be matched and I have to fall back to slower code...

Henrik,

Let me know if you need a demo ( small test case ) that demonstrates how to use the Version 1 technique. That is, underlying 1D array for a 2D array is a Contiguos and Always Aligned.

I think you misunderstood what I meant with matrix offsets. The data for each image is in a single aligned array (e.g. 500x500 doubles aligned on 16/32 byte boundary, along with sizeX, sizeY, stride), but my calculation occasionally requires me to shift the data.

For example, the normal matrix addition case is A'[x,y] = A[x,y] + B[x,y]. Here, alignment is fine, also since the strides of both matrices match and the elements between [sizeX ... stride] are unused, I can use vector addition to compute this.

However, if I am shifting the data by a column, this becomes A'[x,y] = A[x,y] + B[x+1, y]. This calculation can be simplified to a matrix addition of two 499x499 matrices, by shifting the start offset of B' by one element, while keeping the stride the same. Now I have an aligned matrix A and an unaligned matrix B. Also, I can no longer just use vector addition because this would corrupt the last column of A (In this example, A'[x,y] would be A[x,y] + B[0, y+1].

>>...However, if I am shifting the data by a column, this becomes A'[x,y] = A[x,y] + B[x+1, y]. This calculation can be
>>simplified to a matrix addition of two 499x499 matrices, by shifting the start offset of B' by one element, while keeping
>>the stride the same. Now I have an aligned matrix A and an unaligned matrix B...

Would you be able to create a generic reproducer of the problem?

Sure, pseudo C++

struct Matrix
{
int width, height, stride;
double *data;
};

void AddToMatrix(Matrix *destMatrix, Matrix *sourceMatrix, long offsetX, long offsetY)
{
// Skip parameter / size verification
if (offsetX == 0 && offsetY == 0)
{
for (unsigned long y=0;y<sourcematrix->height;++y)
for (unsigned long x=0;x<sourcematrix->width;++x)
destMatrix->data[y*destMatrix->stride+x] = destMatrix->data[y*destMatrix->stride+x] + sourceMatrix->data[y*sourceMatrix->stride+x];
return;
}
Matrix clippedDestMatrix = *destMatrix;
Matrix clippedSourceMatrix = *sourceMatrix;
if (offsetX != 0)
{
clippedDestMatrix.width -= abs(offsetX);
clippedSourceMatrix.width -= abs(offsetX);
if (offsetX < 0)
{
clippedSourceMatrix.data = clippedSourceMatrix.data + (-offsetX);
}
else
{
clippedDestMatrix.data = clippedDestMatrix.data + offsetX;
}
}
// ditto for Y
}

>>...
>> Matrix clippedDestMatrix = *destMatrix;
>> Matrix clippedSourceMatrix = *sourceMatrix;
>>...

You're creating local copies for both matricies to do all the rest processing and of course it takes some time ( especially when matricies are 8Kx8K or larger ). Why wouldn't you have additional member offset in your base Matrix struct?
...
struct Matrix
{
int width, height, stride, offset;
double *data;
};
...

>>...especially when matricies are 8Kx8K or larger...

This is just for example and I remember that your matricies are smaller ( ~0.5Kx0.5K ).

I'm not. The matrix struct just contains a pointer to the data, when I duplicate the matrix struct I just duplicate the pointer, not the memory containing the data itself. Your offset variable is equivalent to what I am doing when I modify the pointer in the matrix struct, except your method means every matrix manipulation function I write would have to know about the offset, my method means the functions don't know anything about the offset, they just are passed matrix structs with a modified width / base data pointer, and unusual stride.

>>...My main problem is when I have to offset one of the matrices by an odd number of columns and the other by
>>an even number of columns, then the data alignment can'\t be matched and I have to fall back to slower code...

Try to add some timing functions, like _rdtsc ( intrinsic ), or GetTickCount in case of a Windows OS, in your codes and compare outputs in order to understand which part is responsible for a performace decrease. Since you have two cases it won't be difficult to detect which part causes that problem.