The application failed to initialize properly 0xc000007b

The application failed to initialize properly 0xc000007b

I am trying to run user-defined subroutine in Abaqus. My subroutine is compiled/linked perfectly without any error. But when it comes to run standard.exe which is the solver of Abaqus, I get the error The application failed to initialize properly 0xc000007b.

These subroutines are written in Fortran. My machine is with the following features:
64bit Xeon machine (16GB RAM)
Windows XP 64bit
Visual Studio 2008
Abaqus 6.7-1
Intel Visual Fortran Compiler Professional 11.1.051
Python 2.5.1

Abaqus starts in Intel Visual Fortran and Visual Studio environment to be able to find all the libraries:
C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\cmd.exe /E:ON /V:ON /K ""C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Compiler\11.1\051\bin\ifortvars.bat" intel64"

I would be very thankful if anyone could help me before December 21 because I am using the trial version of Inter Fortran and I am not still sure whether this version of Fortran works for me or not. Thank you.

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For more complete information about compiler optimizations, see our Optimization Notice.

This error can have many causes, but one common one is not having the proper Visual C++ libraries installed. Are you running the solver on the same system where you built the application? Did you build the DLL as a "Release Configuration"?

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

This error can have many causes, but one common one is not having the proper Visual C++ libraries installed. Are you running the solver on the same system where you built the application? Did you build the DLL as a "Release Configuration"?

Sorry for my late reply and thank you for your quick answer. I thought the Forum would email me as long as I got a reply. How can I make sure that I am using the proper C++ libraries?In Abaqus website, the version 6.7-1 needs the following (http://www.simulia.com/support/v67/v67_sysRqmts.html):

Fortran Compiler:
Intel Visual Fortran 9.1
Intel Visual Fortran 8.1

C++ Compiler:
Microsoft Visual C++ .NET2005
Microsoft Visual C++ .NET2003

Does it really matter if I use a newer version? A friend of mine told me it is because of Windows XP 64 but I doubt if he is right and suggested me to use Windows 7.

Thank you.
Ahmad

I don't know if it matters if you use a newer version, but I would not expect that to cause this error. Download Dependency Walker, run it and open your EXE - see if it reports any errors. You'll want the 32-bit (x86) version, even if you're running on XP 64, since I assume you're building 32-bit executables.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

I don't know if it matters if you use a newer version, but I would not expect that to cause this error. Download Dependency Walker, run it and open your EXE - see if it reports any errors. You'll want the 32-bit (x86) version, even if you're running on XP 64, since I assume you're building 32-bit executables.

I ran the dependency walker and got the following. I would be very thankful if you could help me.

*****************************| System Information |*****************************

Dependency Walker: 2.2.6000 (64-bit)
Operating System: Microsoft Windows 2003 Professional (64-bit)
OS Version: 5.02.3790 Service Pack 2
Processor: EM64T Family 6 Model 23 Stepping 6, GenuineIntel, ~2993MHz
Number of Processors: 8, Mask: 0x00000000000000FF
Computer Name:
User Name:
Local Date: Friday, December 18, 2009
Local Time: 11:42:45 AM Eastern Standard Time (GMT-05:00)
OS Language: 0x0409: English (United States)
Memory Load: 20%
Physical Memory Total: 17,177,096,192 (16382 MB)
Physical Memory Used: 3,456,954,368
Physical Memory Free: 13,720,141,824
Page File Memory Total: 18,698,526,720
Page File Memory Used: 2,652,573,696
Page File Memory Free: 16,045,953,024
Virtual Memory Total: 8,796,092,891,136
Virtual Memory Used: 87,965,696
Virtual Memory Free: 8,796,004,925,440
Page Size: 0x00001000 (4,096)
Allocation Granularity: 0x00010000 (65,536)
Min. App. Address: 0x0000000000010000 (65,536)
Max. App. Address: 0x000007FFFFFEFFFF (8,796,092,956,671)

********************************| Search Order |********************************
* *
* Legend: F File E Error (path not valid) *
* *
********************************************************************************

Side-by-Side components (Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista/+)
[F ] c:windowswinsxsamd64_microsoft.vc80.crt_1fc8b3b9a1e18e3b_8.0.50727.4053_x-ww_18a05f69MSVCP80.DLL
[F ] c:windowswinsxsamd64_microsoft.vc80.crt_1fc8b3b9a1e18e3b_8.0.50727.4053_x-ww_18a05f69MSVCR80.DLL
The system's "KnownDLLs" list
[F ] c:windowssystem32ADVAPI32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32COMCTL32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32COMDLG32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32GDI32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32IEFRAME.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32IERTUTIL.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32IMAGEHLP.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32KERNEL32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32LZ32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32MPR.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32MSVCRT.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32NORMALIZ.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32NTDLL.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32OLE32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32OLEAUT32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32OLECLI32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32OLECNV32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32OLESVR32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32RPCRT4.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32SECUR32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32SHELL32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32SHLWAPI.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32URL.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32URLMON.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32USER32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32VERSION.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32WININET.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32WLDAP32.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32WOW64.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32WOW64CPU.DLL
[F ] c:windowssystem32WOW64WIN.DLL
The application directory
[ ] c:abaqus6.7-1exec
The 32-bit system directory
[ ] C:WINDOWSsystem32
The 16-bit system directory (Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/+)
[ ] C:WINDOWSsystem
The system's root OS directory
[ ] C:WINDOWS
The application's registered "App Paths" directories
The system's "PATH" environment variable directories
[ ] C:Program FilesWinRAR
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Mozilla Firefox
[ ] C:Program FilesTecplotTec360 2009Bin
[ ] C:Python25
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompiler11.151libIntel64
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompiler11.151mklem64tbin
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompiler11.151binIntel64
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompiler11.151IncludeIntel64
[ ] C:WINDOWSsystem32
[ ] C:WINDOWS
[ ] C:WINDOWSSystem32Wbem
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Common FilesRoxio SharedDLLShared
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Common FilesRoxio Shared9.0DLLShared
[ ] C:Program FilesMATLABR2008abin
[ ] C:Program FilesMATLABR2008abinwin64
[ ] C:PTCproeWildfire 4.0bin
[ ] C:PTCproeWildfire 4.0mechbin
[ ] C:ABAQUSCommands
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)MATLABMATLAB Compiler Runtimev78runtimewin32
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Smart ProjectsIsoBuster
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft SQL Server90Toolsbinn
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)ImageConverter Plus
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)ImageConverter PlusMicrosoft.VC80.CRT
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)ImageConverter PlusMicrosoft.VC80.MFC
[ ] C:Program FilesCommon FilesIDTBin64
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)PivTecPivView2Cbin
[ ] C:WINDOWSsystem32gsgs7.05bin
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)QuickTimeQTSystem
[ ] C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft Visual Studio 9.0VCcedllx86

***************************| Module Dependency Tree |***************************
* *
* Legend: F Forwarded Module ? Missing Module 6 64-bit Module *
* D Delay Load Module ! Invalid Module *
* * Dynamic Module E Import/Export Mismatch or Load Failure *
* ^ Duplicate Module *
* *
********************************************************************************

[ 6] ABQ671.EXE
[ 6] MSVCR80.DLL
[ 6] MSVCRT.DLL
[ ^6] KERNEL32.DLL
[F^6] NTDLL.DLL
[ ^6] KERNEL32.DLL
[F^6] NTDLL.DLL
[ 6] KERNEL32.DLL
[ 6] NTDLL.DLL
[F^6] NTDLL.DLL
[ 6] MSVCP80.DLL
[ ^6] MSVCR80.DLL
[ ^6] KERNEL32.DLL
[F^6] NTDLL.DLL

********************************| Module List |*********************************
* *
* Legend: D Delay Load Module ? Missing Module 6 64-bit Module *
* * Dynamic Module ! Invalid Module *
* E Import/Export Mismatch or Load Failure *
* *
********************************************************************************

Module File Time Stamp Link Time Stamp File Size Attr. Link Checksum Real Checksum CPU Subsystem Symbols Preferred Base Actual Base Virtual Size Load Order File Ver Product Ver Image Ver Linker Ver OS Ver Subsystem Ver
----- ------------ ----------------- ----------------- --------- ----- ------------- ------------- --- --------- ------- ------------------ ----------- ------------ ---------- -------------- -------------- --------- ---------- ------ -------------
[ 6] ABQ671.EXE 03/03/2007 6:49p 03/03/2007 6:49p 180,736 A 0x00038499 0x00038499 x64 Console CV 0x0000000000400000 Unknown 0x0002F000 Not Loaded N/A N/A 0.0 8.0 4.0 5.2
[ 6] KERNEL32.DLL 03/21/2009 8:47a 03/21/2009 11:59a 1,504,256 A 0x001773D3 0x001773D3 x64 Console CV 0x0000000077D40000 Unknown 0x00173000 Not Loaded 5.2.3790.4480 5.2.3790.4480 5.2 8.0 5.2 5.2
[ 6] MSVCP80.DLL 07/11/2009 8:30p 07/11/2009 8:13p 1,068,368 A 0x00106E35 0x00106E35 x64 GUI CV 0x000000007C420000 Unknown 0x00109000 Not Loaded 8.0.50727.4053 8.0.50727.4053 0.0 8.0 4.0 5.2
[ 6] MSVCR80.DLL 07/11/2009 8:30p 07/11/2009 8:10p 802,624 A 0x000CBB2E 0x000CBB2E x64 GUI CV 0x0000000078130000 Unknown 0x000C9000 Not Loaded 8.0.50727.4053 8.0.50727.4053 0.0 8.0 4.0 5.2
[ 6] MSVCRT.DLL 02/18/2007 7:00a 02/17/2007 4:36a 520,192 A 0x00085B25 0x00085B25 x64 GUI CV 0x000007FF7FC00000 Unknown 0x00086000 Not Loaded 7.0.3790.3959 6.1.8638.3959 5.2 8.0 5.2 5.2
[ 6] NTDLL.DLL 03/19/2009 6:51p 02/09/2009 5:39a 1,260,544 A 0x0013BF98 0x0013BF98 x64 Console CV 0x0000000077EC0000 Unknown 0x0013B000 Not Loaded 5.2.3790.4455 5.2.3790.4455 5.2 8.0 5.2 5.2

************************************| Log |*************************************

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

I don't know if it matters if you use a newer version, but I would not expect that to cause this error. Download Dependency Walker, run it and open your EXE - see if it reports any errors. You'll want the 32-bit (x86) version, even if you're running on XP 64, since I assume you're building 32-bit executables.

You are right. I get this error when I open STANDARD.EXE which is the solver of ABAQUS:

[ ? ] ABQADB_CORE.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQDDB_ADM_CORE.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQDDB_ANALYSISSUPPORT.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQDDB_COMMUNICATIONS.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQDMP_CORE.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQSTD_CORE.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[ ? ] ABQUTI_UTILICENSING.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[D? ] IESHIMS.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).
[D? ] WER.DLL Error opening file. The system cannot find the file specified (2).

In addition, I see a lot of filenames ending with "*32.DLL" in the report of dependency walker. Furthermore, STANDARD.EXE depends on MSVCR80.DLL and KERNEL32.DLL.

It looks as if the various ABAQUS DLLs cannot be located. They are the ones with names starting with ABQ. You will want to add the location(s) of those DLLs to the PATH environment variable, or contact ABAQUS support for help.

The filenames ending in *32 are fine. Don't worry about IESHIMS.DLL or WER.DLL.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

It looks as if the various ABAQUS DLLs cannot be located. They are the ones with names starting with ABQ. You will want to add the location(s) of those DLLs to the PATH environment variable, or contact ABAQUS support for help.

The filenames ending in *32 are fine. Don't worry about IESHIMS.DLL or WER.DLL.

I fixed all the PATH environment for Abaqus DLLs. Now STANDARD.EXE dependency has only the errors due to IESHIMS.DLL and WER.DLL but I still get the "STANDARD.EXE Application error: The application failed to initialize properly 0xc000007b".

See if installing the VC2005 Redistributables from here helps.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)
See if installing the VC2005 Redistributables from here helps.

I installed the VC2005 redistributables but I still get this error: "This application has failed to start because MSVCR90.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem". I am also wondering why in the dependency of STANDARD.EXE, MSVCR90.DLL is not listed and instead MSVCR80.DLL is listed as the dependent DLL and when I run the program it looks for MSVCR90.DLL.

"still get this error"? Did you get it before?

There must be an indirect dependency on MSVCR90.DLL. Try installing this too.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

"still get this error"? Did you get it before?

There must be an indirect dependency on MSVCR90.DLL. Try installing this too.

I installed all the redistritables and it didnt help and I still get the same error. I put the path of MSVCR90.DLL before; I also copied this file to WINDOWS directory. I am wondering why it is looking for this file. Please advise.

Remove any copies you made of MSVCR90.DLL - that could be causing a problem. MSVCR80.DLL too. Remove paths to those files from PATH as well.

Run dependency walker again on the EXE. Click File > Save to save a .dwi file. Attach the .dwi file to a reply here.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)
Remove any copies you made of MSVCR90.DLL - that could be causing a problem. MSVCR80.DLL too. Remove paths to those files from PATH as well.

Run dependency walker again on the EXE. Click File > Save to save a .dwi file. Attach the .dwi file to a reply here.

I still get the same error. I had copied to SYSTEM32 and SysWOW64 but I found other copies in some other folders in WINDOWS. As you said, I only deleted the files I copied and also from the PATH of the system but I get the same error. Please find the attached for the requested file.

Attachments: 

AttachmentSize
Downloadapplication/zip standard.zip2.12 MB

I had not realized that you had built a 64-bit configuration. The links I gave you previously were for the 32-bit redistributables. I can't see any reference to MSVCR90.DLL in this. Try this one instead.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)
I had not realized that you had built a 64-bit configuration. The links I gave you previously were for the 32-bit redistributables. I can't see any reference to MSVCR90.DLL in this. Try this one instead.

First of all let me thank you for helping me. Unfortunately, my trial license will expire on December 21. May I ask you to extend the trial version for one month?

I tried the 64bit version of the redistributables but I dont know why it still looks for MSVCR90.DLL. :( The exact error message is as follows:

STANDARD.EXE - Unable To Locate Component
This application has failed to start because MSVCR90.DLL was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem.

Quoting - Ahmad Falahatpisheh
Thank you. I try to install a clean install of Windows XP or 7. It was a great to chat with you in this forum. Do you mind if I ask you to have your email address or become your friend in Facebook? I am doing my PhD in U. of South Carolina in mechanical engineering and I am working on cardiovascular engineering for my thesis.

Thank you,
Ahmad

Please let me know how it works with a clean install. I'm not on Facebook, but you can "follow" me on Twitter (see link below).

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

Please let me know how it works with a clean install. I'm not on Facebook, but you can "follow" me on Twitter (see link below).

Before I install a new OS, I uninstalled all visual studio 2008, Intel Fortran 11 and Abaqus6.7. and re-installing of them didnt help :'(

Quoting - Ahmad Falahatpisheh

In the Simulia web site, Windows x86-64 tab, it is mentioned that Fortran Compiler should be Intel Fortran 9.1 but no more information about whether I need Intel Fortran 9.1 64bit. And I assume 32bit version also works for x86-64 OS.

A separate build for Windows x64, certainly would be using the x64 Visual Studio and ifort compilers, not the 32-bit compiler components. If you want to use 32-bit compilers, you can do so with the 32-bit release, running on either 32- or 64-bit OS.

Quoting - Ahmad Falahatpisheh
Dear Steve,

it's me again :p

My advisor didnt allow me to change the operating system. I am now trying to use VS2005 with Intel Visual Fortran 10.1 along with Abaqus 6.7. The error that I get is:
LINK.exe not found in PATH.

I attack by changing the target of the command prompt. Could you please let me know how I can open a command prompt in which all the environmental variables of VS2005 and Intel Visual Fortran are set for a x64 machine? I tried this:
C:WINDOWSSysWOW64cmd.exe /E:ON /V:ON /K ""C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompilerFortran10.1.032em64tbinIFortVars.bat"" & %comspec% /k ""C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft Visual Studio 8VCvcvarsall.bat"" x64

Wish you a happy new year
Ahmad

Ahmad,

Do you have the "x64" support for VS2005 installed? It is not there by default. Is link.exe in C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 8VCbinamd64 ?

The best way to establish the environment is to use the provided shortcut Start > All Programs > Intel Software Development Tools > Intel Fortran Compiler 10.1.xxx > Fortran Build Environment for applications running on Intel EM64T (I think that's what it said in 10.1)

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)

Ahmad,

Do you have the "x64" support for VS2005 installed? It is not there by default. Is link.exe in C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 8VCbinamd64 ?

The best way to establish the environment is to use the provided shortcut Start > All Programs > Intel Software Development Tools > Intel Fortran Compiler 10.1.xxx > Fortran Build Environment for applications running on Intel EM64T (I think that's what it said in 10.1)

Steve,

I reallly appreciate your fast replies. I dont have C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 8VCbinamd64. Is there any option during installation of VS2005 for x64 support?

Yes, but you have to choose a Custom install. Here's how you can fix it:

1. From Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs, select Microsoft Visual Studio 2005
> Change/Remove. The Visual Studio Maintenance Mode window will appear.
Click Next.
2. Click Add or Remove Features
3. Under Select features to install, expand Language Tools > Visual C++
4. If the box X64 Compiler and Tools is not checked, check it, then click Update. If the
box is already checked, click Cancel.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)
Yes, but you have to choose a Custom install. Here's how you can fix it:

1. From Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs, select Microsoft Visual Studio 2005
> Change/Remove. The Visual Studio Maintenance Mode window will appear.
Click Next.
2. Click Add or Remove Features
3. Under Select features to install, expand Language Tools > Visual C++
4. If the box X64 Compiler and Tools is not checked, check it, then click Update. If the
box is already checked, click Cancel.

Ii did what you told me. Is it wrong to put the following in the command prompt of intel fortran for x64 machines?

%comspec% /k ""C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft Visual Studio 8VCvcvarsall.bat"" amd64 & C:WINDOWSSysWOW64cmd.exe /E:ON /V:ON /K ""C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompilerFortran10.1.032em64tbinIFortVars.bat""

Quoting - Ahmad Falahatpisheh

Ii did what you told me. Is it wrong to put the following in the command prompt of intel fortran for x64 machines?

%comspec% /k ""C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft Visual Studio 8VCvcvarsall.bat"" amd64 & C:WINDOWSSysWOW64cmd.exe /E:ON /V:ON /K ""C:Program Files (x86)IntelCompilerFortran10.1.032em64tbinIFortVars.bat""

The ifortvars.bat should have the vcvars invocation inside. If it happens to have the wrong path there, you could edit it there, or a repair e.g. from the add/remove should do it.

Quoting - tim18

The ifortvars.bat should have the vcvars invocation inside. If it happens to have the wrong path there, you could edit it there, or a repair e.g. from the add/remove should do it.

I fixed it Steve. Thank you so much for all your help. You are really the Fortran Man.

I'm glad to hear it.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Quoting - Steve Lionel (Intel)
I'm glad to hear it.

What is the best algorithm to read sequential algorithm? Do you suggest the following? Thank you.

OPEN(UNIT=63,FILE='C:TEMPNODES.TXT');
COUNTER=1
DO WHILE (.NOT.EOF(63))
READ(63,*) ELEMID(COUNTER),(ELEMNODES(COUNTER,I),I=1,4)
COUNTER=COUNTER+1
ENDDO
CLOSE(63)

I would not use EOF(). Rather, I'd use END= or IOSTAT= on the READ and EXIT the loop if the end of file was reached.

I'm also a bit nervous about the use of list-directed input unless you know that the input is well-formed, as you could get unexpected results otherwise (extra records read, values read as 0 or -1, etc.)

Steve - Intel Developer Support

Hi, it seams like I have a similar problem: I have a code developed by a former colleague, it's a user subroutine developed for Abaqus using MKL (Math Kernel Libary); I get it running with Abaqus by compiling the code via a batch file and then using the .obj file with Abaqus; that's fine; the code was developed via visual studio including an additional header code which imitates Abaqus, so that it can be run without using Abaqus; for this reason it was always compiled and run via visual sudio by my colleague; he was using a 32bit OS; now I'm trying to get this run on my new 64bit machine (windows 7) using visual studio 2005 (he also used visual studio 2005); I managed to compile the code (build) using either win32 or x64 (using 32 or 64 MKL includes), but when trying to run either the 32 or the 64 version I get the error message 0xc000007b. I tried to do all you recommended in this blog, but I couldn't fix it; can you maybe help me?

I forgot to mention that the 0xc00007b error message pops up, whe I try to run the 32 built, when trying to run the 64 built I get the MSVCR90.DLL missing error message

Are you running the program on a system different from the one on which it was built? A reference to MSVCR90.DLL suggests that at least part of this was built with VS2008.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

I'm sorry, MSVCR90.dll was a typing error, it's MSVCR80D.dll; I have the source code, which was developed using another system; I build it on my system and then I try to run it on the same system;

hi, i could fix the problem now, I had deactivate " generate manifest file" earlier as suggested in another forum, now after following your advices and setting all the pathes for the fortran compiler and the MKL correctely, I had to activate "geneate manifest file" again, now it works;

thank your for your help!

kind regards, david

it works only using the x64 platform, using win32 platform I still get the 0xc00007b error message, but for me it's of course fine as long as it works on x64

If it was MSVCR80D.DLL, then it was built as a Debug configuration and this is not redistributable. If you're building an application or DLL to run outside of Visual Studio, build it as a Release configuration.

Steve - Intel Developer Support

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