# Coding Techniques

This section discusses coding techniques to improve performance on processors based on supported architectures.

To improve performance, properly align arrays in your code. Additional conditions can improve performance for specific function domains.

## Data Alignment and Leading Dimensions

To improve performance of your application that calls Intel MKL, align your arrays on 64-byte boundaries and ensure that the leading dimensions of the arrays are divisible by 64/`element_size`, where `element_size` is the number of bytes for the matrix elements (4 for single-precision real, 8 for double-precision real and single-precision complex, and 16 for double-precision complex) . For more details, see Example of Data Alignment.

For Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor x200 product family, codenamed Knights Landing, align your matrices on 4096-byte boundaries and set the leading dimension to the following integer expression:

(((`n` * `element_size` + 511) / 512) * 512 + 64) /`element_size`,

where `n` is the matrix dimension along the leading dimension.

## LAPACK Packed Routines

The routines with the names that contain the letters `HP, OP, PP, SP, TP, UP` in the matrix type and storage position (the second and third letters respectively) operate on the matrices in the packed format (see LAPACK "Routine Naming Conventions" sections in the Intel MKL Developer Reference). Their functionality is strictly equivalent to the functionality of the unpacked routines with the names containing the letters `HE, OR, PO, SY, TR, UN` in the same positions, but the performance is significantly lower.

If the memory restriction is not too tight, use an unpacked routine for better performance. In this case, you need to allocate `N`^{2}/2 more memory than the memory required by a respective packed routine, where `N` is the problem size (the number of equations).

For example, to speed up solving a symmetric eigenproblem with an expert driver, use the unpacked routine:

call dsyevx(jobz, range, uplo, n, a, lda, vl, vu, il, iu, abstol, m, w, z, ldz, work, lwork, iwork, ifail, info)

where `a` is the dimension ` lda-by-n`, which is at least

`N`

^{2}elements,

instead of the packed routine:

call dspevx(jobz, range, uplo, n, ap, vl, vu, il, iu, abstol, m, w, z, ldz, work, iwork, ifail, info)

where `ap` is the dimension `N`*(`N`+1)/2.

Optimization Notice |
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Intel's compilers may or may not optimize to the same degree for non-Intel microprocessors for optimizations that are not unique to Intel microprocessors. These optimizations include SSE2, SSE3, and SSSE3 instruction sets and other optimizations. Intel does not guarantee the availability, functionality, or effectiveness of any optimization on microprocessors not manufactured by Intel. Microprocessor-dependent optimizations in this product are intended for use with Intel microprocessors. Certain optimizations not specific to Intel microarchitecture are reserved for Intel microprocessors. Please refer to the applicable product User and Reference Guides for more information regarding the specific instruction sets covered by this notice. Notice revision #20110804 |

**Parent topic:**Other Tips and Techniques to Improve Performance