Ray-tracing is a classic example of an embarrassingly parallel algorithm; since each pixel is typically independent of the rest, theoretically every pixel can be done in parallel (given enough core
The N-Body problem is a classic example used frequently to demonstrate parallelization and how it improves performance.
I've got a great wife. For my birthday she got me a copy of the newly updated Introduction to Algorithms, 3rd ed. by Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, and Stein.
Applying Intel® Threading Building Blocks Observers for Thread Affinity on Intel® Xeon Phi™ Coprocessors
In spite of the fact that the Intel® Threading Building Blocks (Intel® TBB) library   provides high-level task based parallelism intended to hide sof