CPU P-states represent voltage-frequency control states defined as performance states in the industry standard Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification (see http://www.acpi.info for more details).
In voltage-frequency control, the voltage and clocks that drive circuits are increased or decreased in response to a workload. The operating system requests specific P-states based on the current workload. The processor may accept or reject the request and set the P-state based on its own state.
P-states columns represent the processor’s supported frequencies and the time spent in each frequency during the collection period.