Drs. Cohen and Li discuss recent advances and opportunities for meeting the challenge of understanding how human brains work, with a focus on the analysis of human brain imaging data. In particular, they discuss a large research effort between Princeton and Intel Labs, attacking this challenge with machine learning and HPC methods. They show how to analyze functional interactions of human brain regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, how to reduce computing time from years to minutes, and even real time. They discuss some of the advances that are being made using such data analysis tools, including the ability to analyze mental states and functional interactions in real-time and how to build a real-time data analysis service for close-loop feedback trainings and potential brain diagnostics, using remote fMRI scanners.