Related Information

For better understanding of the performance data provided by the Intel® VTune™ Amplifier, you are highly recommended to explore additional resources on the web.

Intel® Processor Information

For the most updates, errata, and the latest information on Intel processors, explore the resources available at The following sections describe processor manuals for Intel 64, IA-32 architecture processors and for Intel Itanium® processors.

Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Manuals

The Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual consists of the following volumes that describe the architecture and programming environment of all Intel 64 and IA-32 architecture processors:

  • Volume 1 describes the architecture and programming environment of processors supporting IA-32 and Intel 64 architectures.

  • Volume 2 includes the full Instruction Set Reference, A-Z, in one volume. Describes the format of the instruction and provides reference pages for instructions.

  • Volume 3 includes the full System Programming Guide, Parts 1, 2, and 3, in one volume. Describes the operating-system support environment of Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures, including: memory management, protection, task management, interrupt and exception handling, multi-processor support, thermal and power management features, debugging, performance monitoring, system management mode, VMX instructions, and Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT).

  • Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual Documentation Changes section describes bug fixes made to the Intel 64 and IA-32 Software Developer's Manual between versions.


    This Change Document applies to all Intel 64 and IA-32 Software Developer's Manual sets (combined volume set, 3 volume set and 7 volume set).

Please refer to all volumes when evaluating your design needs.

For more information on processor-specific performance analysis, explore articles and tuning guides available for download at


You are strongly encouraged to read the following books for in-depth understanding of threading. Each book discusses general concepts of parallel programming by explaining a particular programming technology:



Intel Threading Building Blocks

Reinders, James. Intel Threading Building Blocks: Outfitting C++ for Multi-core Processor Parallelism. O'Reilly, July 2007 (

OpenMP* technology

Chapman, Barbara, Gabriele Jost, Ruud van der Pas, and David J. Kuck (foreword). Using OpenMP: Portable Shared Memory Parallel Programming. MIT Press, October 2007 (

Microsoft Win32* Threading

Akhter, Shameem, and Jason Roberts. Multi-Core Programming: Increasing Performance through Software Multithreading, Intel Press, April 2006 (


For more complete information about compiler optimizations, see our Optimization Notice.
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