Get Started With Unity* Machine Learning Using Intel® Distribution for Python* (Part 1)

3d objects moving across plane

Abstract

This article will show game developers how to use reinforcement learning to create better artificial intelligence (AI) behavior. Using Intel® Distribution for Python—an improved version of the popular object-oriented, high-level programming language—readers will glean how to train pre-existing machine-language (ML) agents to learn and adapt. In this scenario, we will use Intel® Optimization for TensorFlow* to run Unity* ML-Agents in the localized environments.


Introduction

Unity ML-Agents are a good way for game developers to learn how to apply concepts of reinforcement learning while creating a scene in the popular Unity engine. We used the ML-Agents plugin to create a simulated environment. We then configure rigorous training to generate an output file from TensorFlow that can be consumed by the created scene in Unity and improve the simulation.

The basic steps are as follows:

  1. Start with an introduction to reinforcement learning.
  2. Perform the setup from the "requirements.txt" file that installs TensorFlow 1.4, and other dependencies.
  3. Train a pre-existing ML-Agent.


System Configuration

The following configuration was used:

  • Standard ASUS laptop
  • 4th Generation Intel® Core™ i7 processor
  • 8 GB RAM
  • Windows® 10 Enterprise Edition


What is Reinforcement Learning?

Reinforcement learning is a method for "training" intelligent programs—known as agents—to constantly adapt and learn in a known or unknown environment. The system advances based on receiving points that might be positive (rewards) or negative (punishments). Based on the interaction between the agents and their environment, we then imply which action needs to be taken.

Some important points about reinforcement learning:

  • It differs from normal machine learning, as we don't look at a training dataset.
  • It works not with data, but with environments, through which we depict real-world scenarios.
  • It is based upon environments, so many parameters come into play as "RL" takes in lots of information to learn and act accordingly.
  • It uses potentially large-scale environments that are real-world scenarios; they might be 2D or 3D environments, simulated worlds, or a game-based scenario.
  • It relies on learning objectives to reach a goal.
  • It obtains rewards from the available environment.

The reinforcement learning cycle is depicted below.

reinforcment loop example
Figure 1. Reinforcement learning cycle.


How the Reward System Works

Rewards work by offering points when single or multiple agents transition from one state to another during interaction with their environment. These points are known as rewards. The more we train, the more rewards we receive, and thus the more accurate the system becomes. Environments can have many different features, as explained below.

Agents

Agents are software routines that make intelligent decisions. Agents should be able to perceive what is happening around them in the environment. The agent is able to perceive the environment based on making decisions that result in an action. The action that the agents perform must be the optimal one. Software agents might be autonomous, or might work together with other agents or people.

flowchart
Figure 2. Flow chart showing the environment workflow.

Environments

Environments determine the parameters within which the agent interacts with its world. The agent must adapt to the environmental factors in order to learn. Environments may be a 2D or 3D world or grid.

Some important features of environments:

a) Deterministic

b) Observable

c) Discrete or continuous

d) Single or multiagent

Each of these features is explained below.

Deterministic

If we can logically infer and predict what will happen in an environment based on inputs and actions, the case is deterministic. Being deterministic, the changes that happen are very predictable for the AI, and the reinforcement learning problem becomes easier because everything is known.

Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA)

In automata theory, a system is described as "DFA" if each of its transitions is uniquely determined by its source state and input symbol. Reading an input symbol is required for each state-transition. Such systems work through a finite number of steps and can only perform one action for a state.

Non-Deterministic Finite Automata (NDFA)

If we are working in a scenario where it cannot be guaranteed which exact state the machine will move into, then it is described as "NDFA." There is still a finite number of steps, but the transitions are not unique.

Observable

If we can say the environment around us is fully observable, that environment is suitable for implementing reinforcement learning. If you consider a chess game, the environment is predictable, with a finite number of potential moves. In contrast, a poker game is not fully observable, because the next card is unknown.

Discrete or continuous

Continuing with the chess/poker scenarios, when the next choice for a move or play is limited, it is in a discrete state. If there are multiple possible states, we call it continuous.

Single or multiagent

Solutions in reinforcement learning can use single agents or multiple agents. When we are dealing with non-deterministic problems, we use multiagent reinforcement learning. The key to understanding reinforcement learning is in how we use the learning techniques. In multiagent solutions, the agent interactions between different environments is enormous. The key is understanding what kind of information is generally available.

Single agents cannot tackle convergence, so when there is some portion of convergence in reinforcement learning it is handled by multiple agents in dynamic environments. In multiagent models, each agent's goals and actions impact the environment.

The following figures depict the differences between single-agent and multiagent models.

diagram
Figure 3. Single-agent system.

diagram
Figure 4. Multiagent system.


Getting Started

We will be using the Unity Integrated Development Engine (IDE) to demonstrate reinforcement learning in game-based simulations. After creating the simulation from scratch, we will use Unity ML-Agents to showcase how reinforcement learning is implemented in the created project and observe how accurate the results are.

Step 1: Create the environment

To start, we will create an environment for the Intel Distribution for Python.

Prerequisites

Make sure you have the Anaconda* IDE installed. Anaconda is a free and open-source distribution of the Python programming language for data science and machine learning-related applications. Through Anaconda, we can install different Python libraries which are useful for machine learning.

The download link is here: https://www.anaconda.com/download/.

The command to create a new environment with an Intel build is shown below.

conda create -n idp intelpython3_core python=3

After all dependencies are installed we proceed to step 2.

Step 2: Activate the environment

Now we will activate the environment. The command is shown below.

source activate idp

Step 3: Inspect the environment

As we have activated the environment, let us check the Python version. (It should reflect the Intel one.)

(idp) C:\Users\abhic>python

Python 3.6.3 |Intel Corporation| (default, Oct 17 2017, 23:26:12) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32

Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

Intel® Distribution for Python is brought to you by Intel Corporation.

Please see: https://software.intel.com/en-us/python-distribution

Step 4: Clone the GitHub* repository

We need to clone or copy the Unity ML repo from the GitHub* link while inside the activated Intel-optimized environment (i.e., named idp). To clone the repo, we use the following command:

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop>git clone https://github.com/Unity-Technologies/ml-agents.git

Step 5: Install requirements

As cloning is proceeding, we need to install certain requirements. The requirements.txt is found in the Python subdirectory.

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents\python>pip install -r requirements.txt

This will install the mandatory dependencies.

Step 6: Create the build

The build is created inside the Unity IDE and the executable is generated. The crawler executable is shown below.

3d objects moving across plane
Figure 5. Crawler executable before training.

Step 7: Optimize the build

To make the training go faster with Intel Distribution for Python, issue the following command from the Python subdirectory:

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents\python>python learn.py manisha.exe --run-id=manisha –train

Once the training has completed a full run, we get the byte file needed to use inside the brain, within the child object of Academy:

INFO: unityagents: Saved Model
INFO: unityagents: Ball3DBrain: Step: 50000. Mean Reward: 100.000. STD of Reward: 0.000.
INFO: unityagents: Saved Model
INFO: unityagents: Saved Model
INFO: unityagents: List of nodes to export:
INFO: unityagents:       action
INFO: unityagents:       value_estimate
INFO: unityagents:       action_probs
INFO: tensorflow: Restoring parameters from ./models/manisha\model-50000.cptk
INFO: tensorflow: Restoring parameters from ./models/manisha\model-50000.cptk
INFO: tensorflow: Froze 15 variables.
INFO: tensorflow:Froze 15 variables.
Converted 15 variables to const ops.

The byte file we generated is used for making the simulation work with machine learning.


Advantages of Using Intel® Distribution for Python*

Python was not designed for multithreading. It runs on one thread, and while developers can run code on other threads, those threads cannot easily access any Python objects. Intel Distribution for Python features thread-enabled libraries, so consider Intel® Threading Building Blocks (Intel® TBB) as a potential tool for multithreading.

The advantages of using Intel Distribution for Python with Unity ML-Agents are as follows:

  • The training process is much faster.
  • The CPU version of TensorFlow involves less overhead.
  • Handling multiple agents using the Intel-optimized pipeline is easier and faster.


Unity* ML-Agents v 0.3

Unity ML-Agents are constantly evolving, with updates responding to community feedback. ML-Agents are based on imitation learning, which is different from reinforcement learning. The most common imitation learning method is "behavioral cloning." Behavioral cloning is a method that we apply to neural networks (specifically Convolutional Neural Networks, or CNNs) to replicate a behavior such as a self-driving car environment, where the goal is for the system is to drive the car as humans do.


Imitation Learning

Generally, when we are talking about "imitation learning," we refer to learning by demonstration. The demonstration is based upon the learning behavior patterns we get while analyzing and generating learning signals to the agent. In the table below, you can see the differences between imitation learning and reinforcement learning.

Imitation learning versus reinforcement learning.

Imitation learning

The process of learning happens through demonstration.

No such mechanism for rewards and punishments are required. Rewards are not necessary.

Generally evolved for real-time interaction.

After training, the agent becomes “human-like” at performing a task.

Reinforcement learning

Involves learning from rewards and punishments.

Based on trial-and-error methods.

Specifically meant for speedy simulation methods.

After training, the agent becomes “optimal” at performing a task.


TensorFlowSharp

In this section, we will cover some basics of TensorFlowSharp. First released in 2015, TensorFlow is Google's open-source library for dataflow programming and framework for deep learning. TensorFlow doesn't provide a C# native API, and the internal brain as it is written in C# is not natively supported. To enable the internal brain for machine learning, we need to utilize TensorFlowSharp, a third-party library which has the specific purpose of binding the .NET framework to TensorFlow.


Running the Examples

We will now go through an example of a Unity ML-Agents project to implement imitation learning. The process will involve the following steps.

  1. Include the TensorFlowSharp Unity Plugin.
  2. Launch Unity IDE.
  3. Find the example folder which is inside Assets. There is a subset folder within the ML-Agents project folder named "Examples." We will work with the example named Crawler. Every change will occur inside this folder.

As we are working to create an environment for training, we will have to set the brain used by the agents to External. Doing this will allow the agents to communicate with the external training process when they are trying to make decisions.

We are exploring the example project Crawler. The setup is a creature with four limbs, from which extend a shorter limb, or forearm (see figure 5 above). For this scenario to be successful, we have the following goal: The agent must move its body along the x axis without falling.

We need to set some parameters to fine-tune the example. The environment contains three agents linked to a single brain. Inside Academy, locate the child object "CrawlerBrain" within the Inspector window. Set the Brain type to External.

Next, open Player Settings:

  1. Go to Menu > Edit > ProjectSetting> Player.
  2. Go to Options Resolution and Presentation.

Check that "Run in Background" is selected. Then check that the resolution dialog is set to "disabled." Finally, click "Build." Save within the Python folder. Name it "Manisha1" and then save it.

Unity interface
Figure 6. Saving the build within the Python* folder.


Train the Brain

Now we will work on training the brain. To open the Anaconda prompt, use the search option in Windows and type in Anaconda. The Anaconda prompt will open. Once inside the Anaconda prompt, we need to find out the environments available.

(base) C:\Users\abhic>conda info --envs

# conda environments:
#
base                  *  C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3
idp                      C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\idp
tensorflow-gpu           C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\tensorflow-gpu
tf-gpu                   C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\tf-gpu
tf-gpu1                  C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\tf-gpu1
tf1                      C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\tf1

We will pass the following command:

(base) C:\Users\abhic>activate idp

Intel Distribution for Python and Intel Optimization for TensorFlow are installed in the environment idp. Next, we will activate the idp by opening the cloned folder in the desktop.

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents>

As we have saved the .exe file in the Python subdirectory, we will locate it there.

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents>cd python

Using the directory command dir we can list the items in the Python subfolder:

We are displaying the contents of the folder to make it easier to identify the files that reside inside in the Python subfolder. As major changes or the supportive code all resides within this subfolder it is easier and efficient to make changes to the way we are going to train the Machine learning agents within the  subfolder. The python subfolder is important because the default code and other supportive library reside within this subfolder. As we have created the build for the Unity scene, we see that one auto-executable file is generated, along with data folders named "manisha1.exe" and "manisha1_Data."

Directory of C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents\python

28-05-2018  06:28    
. 28-05-2018 06:28 .. 21-05-2018 11:34 6,635 Basics.ipynb 21-05-2018 11:34 curricula 21-05-2018 11:34 2,685 learn.py 29-01-2018 13:48 650,752 manisha.exe 29-01-2018 13:24 650,752 manisha1.exe 28-05-2018 06:28 manisha1_Data 21-05-2018 11:58 manisha_Data 21-05-2018 12:00 models 21-05-2018 11:34 101 requirements.txt 21-05-2018 11:34 896 setup.py 21-05-2018 12:00 summaries 21-05-2018 11:34 tests 21-05-2018 11:34 3,207 trainer_config.yaml 21-05-2018 12:00 24 unity-environment.log 21-05-2018 12:00 unityagents 29-01-2018 13:55 36,095,936 UnityPlayer.dll 21-05-2018 12:00 unitytrainers 18-01-2018 04:44 42,704 WinPixEventRuntime.dll 10 File(s) 37,453,692 bytes 10 Dir(s) 1,774,955,646,976 bytes free

Look inside the subdirectory to locate the executable "manisha1." We are now ready to use Intel Distribution for Python and Intel Optimization for TensorFlow to train the model. For training, we will use the learn.py file. The command for using Intel-optimized Python is shown below.

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents\python>python learn.py manisha1.exe --run-id=manisha1 –train

(idp) C:\Users\abhic\Desktop\ml-agents\python>python learn.py manisha1.exe --run-id=manisha1 --train

INFO:unityagents:{'--curriculum': 'None',
 '--docker-target-name': 'Empty',
 '--help': False,
 '--keep-checkpoints': '5',
 '--lesson': '0',
 '--load': False,
 '--run-id': 'manisha1',
 '--save-freq': '50000',
 '--seed': '-1',
 '--slow': False,
 '--train': True,
 '--worker-id': '0',
 '': 'manisha1.exe'}
INFO:unityagents:
'Academy' started successfully!
Unity Academy name: Academy
        Number of Brains: 1
        Number of External Brains: 1
        Lesson number: 0
        Reset Parameters:
Unity brain name: CrawlerBrain
        Number of Visual Observations (per agent): 0
        Vector Observation space type: continuous
        Vector Observation space size (per agent): 117
        Number of stacked Vector Observation: 1
        Vector Action space type: continuous
        Vector Action space size (per agent): 12
        Vector Action descriptions: , , , , , , , , , , ,
2018-05-28 06:57:56.872734: I C:\tf_jenkins\home\workspace\rel-win\M\windows\PY\36\tensorflow\core\platform\cpu_feature_guard.cc:137] Your CPU supports instructions that this TensorFlow binary was not compiled to use: AVX AVX2
C:\Users\abhic\AppData\Local\conda\conda\envs\idp\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\ops\gradients_impl.py:96: UserWarning: Converting sparse IndexedSlices to a dense Tensor of unknown shape. This may consume a large amount of memory.
"Converting sparse IndexedSlices to a dense Tensor of unknown shape."
INFO: unityagents: Hyperparameters for the PPO Trainer of brain CrawlerBrain:
        batch_size:     2024
        beta:   0.005
        buffer_size:    20240
        epsilon:        0.2
        gamma:  0.995
        hidden_units:   128
        lambd:  0.95
        learning_rate:  0.0003
        max_steps:      1e6
        normalize:      True
        num_epoch:      3
        num_layers:     2
        time_horizon:   1000
        sequence_length:        64
        summary_freq:   3000
        use_recurrent:  False
        graph_scope:
        summary_path:   ./summaries/manisha1
        memory_size:    256
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 3000. Mean Reward: -5.349. Std of Reward: 3.430.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 6000. Mean Reward: -4.651. Std of Reward: 4.235.
The parameters above set up the training process. After the training process is complete (it can be lengthy) we get the following details in the console:
INFO: unityagents: Saved Model
INFO: unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 951000. Mean Reward: 2104.477. Std of Reward: 614.015.
INFO: unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 954000. Mean Reward: 2203.703. Std of Reward: 445.340.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 957000. Mean Reward: 2205.529. Std of Reward: 531.324.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 960000. Mean Reward: 2247.108. Std of Reward: 472.395.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 963000. Mean Reward: 2204.579. Std of Reward: 554.639.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 966000. Mean Reward: 2171.968. Std of Reward: 547.745.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 969000. Mean Reward: 2154.843. Std of Reward: 581.117.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 972000. Mean Reward: 2268.717. Std of Reward: 484.157.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 975000. Mean Reward: 2244.491. Std of Reward: 434.925.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 978000. Mean Reward: 2182.568. Std of Reward: 564.878.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 981000. Mean Reward: 2315.219. Std of Reward: 478.237.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 984000. Mean Reward: 2156.906. Std of Reward: 651.962.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 987000. Mean Reward: 2253.490. Std of Reward: 573.727.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 990000. Mean Reward: 2241.219. Std of Reward: 728.114.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 993000. Mean Reward: 2264.340. Std of Reward: 473.863.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 996000. Mean Reward: 2279.487. Std of Reward: 475.624.
INFO:unityagents: CrawlerBrain: Step: 999000. Mean Reward: 2338.135. Std of Reward: 443.513.
INFO:unityagents:Saved Model
INFO:unityagents:Saved Model
INFO:unityagents:Saved Model
INFO:unityagents:List of nodes to export :
INFO:unityagents:       action
INFO:unityagents:       value_estimate
INFO:unityagents:       action_probs
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from ./models/manisha1\model-1000000.cptk
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from ./models/manisha1\model-1000000.cptk
INFO:tensorflow:Froze 15 variables.
INFO:tensorflow:Froze 15 variables.
Converted 15 variables to const ops.

Integration of the Training Brain with the Unity Environment

The idea behind using Intel Distribution for Python is to make the training process more accurate. Some examples will require more time to complete the training process because of the large number of steps.

Since TensorFlowSharp is still in the experimental phase, it is disabled by default. To enable TensorFlow and make the internal brain available, follow these steps:

  1. Make sure that the TensorFlow plugin is present in the Assets folder. Within the Project tab, navigate to this path: Assets->ML-Agents->Plugins->Computer.
  2. Open the Edit->projectSettings->Player to enable TensorFlow and .NET support. Elect Scripting Runtime Version to Experimental(.net 4.6).
  3. Open the Scripting-defined symbols and add the following text: ENABLE_TENSORFLOW.
  4. Press the Enter key and save the project.


Bringing the Trained Model to Unity

After the training process is over, the TensorFlow framework creates a byte file for the project. Locate the model created during the training process under crawler/models/manisha1.

The executable file generated in the build for the Crawler scene will be the name we use for the next file to be generated. The file name will be the name of the environment with the extension of the bytes file when the training is complete.

If "manisha1.exe" is the executable file, then the byte file generated will be "manisha1.bytes," which follows the convention <env-name>.bytes.

  1. Copy the generated bytes file from the models folder to the TF Models subfolder.
  2. Open up the Unity IDE and select the crawler scene.
  3. Select the brain from the scene hierarchy.
  4. Change the type of brain to internal.
  5. Drag the .bytes file from the project folder to the graph model placeholder in the brain inspector, and hit play to run it.

The output should look similar to the screenshot below.

Unity interface
Figure 7. Executable created without the internal brain activated.

We then build the project with the internal brain. An executable is generated.

Unity interface
Figure 8. The executable after building the project with the internal brain.


Summary

Unity and Intel are lowering the entry barrier for game developers who seek more compelling AI behavior to boost immersion. Intelligent agents, each acting with dynamic and engaging behavior, offer promise for more realism and better user experiences. The use of reinforcement learning in game development is still in its early phase, but it has the potential to be a disruptive technology. Use the techniques and resources listed in this article to get started creating your own advanced game-play, and see what the excitement is all about.


Resources

Para obtener información más completa sobre las optimizaciones del compilador, consulte nuestro Aviso de optimización.