Introduction to the SIMD Data Layout Templates

SIMD Data Layout Templates (SDLT) is a C++11 template library providing containers that represent arrays of "Plain Old Data" objects (a struct whose data members do not have any pointers/references and no virtual functions) using layouts that enable generation of efficient SIMD (single instruction multiple data) vector code. SDLT uses standard ISO C++11 code. It does not require a special language or compiler to be functional, but takes advantage of performance features (such as OpenMP* SIMD extensions and pragma ivdep) that may not be available to all compilers. It is designed to promote scalable SIMD vector programming. To use the library, specify SIMD loops and data layouts using explicit vector programming model and SDLT containers, and let the compiler generate efficient SIMD code in an efficient manner.

Many of the library interfaces employ generic programming, in which interfaces are defined by requirements on types and not specific types. The C++ Standard Template Library (STL) is an example of generic programming. Generic programming enables SDLT to be flexible yet efficient. The generic interfaces enable you to customize components to your specific needs.

The net result is that SDLT enables you to specify a preferred SIMD data layout far more conveniently than re-structuring your code completely with a new data structure for effective vectorization, and at the same time can improve performance.

Motivation

C++ programs often represent an algorithm in terms of high level objects. For many algorithms there is a set of data that the algorithm will need to process. It is common for the data set to be represented as array of "plain old data" objects. It is also common for developers to represent that array with a container from the C++ Standard Template Library, like std::vector. For example:

struct Point3s 
{
    float x;
    float y;
    float z;
           // helper methods
};

std::vector<Point3s> inputDataSet(count);
std::vector<Point3s> outputDataSet(count);

for(int i=0; i < count; ++i) {
  Point3s inputElement = inputDataSet[i];
  Point3s result = // transformation of inputElement that is independent of other iterations
                   // can keep algorithm high level using object helper methods
  outputDataSet[i] = result;
}

When possible a compiler may attempt to vectorize the loop above, however the overhead of loading the "Array of Structures" data set into vector registers may overcome any performance gain of vectorizing. Programs exhibiting the scenario above could be good candidates to use a SDLT container with a SIMD-friendly internal memory layout. SDLT containers provide accessor objects to import and export Primitives between the underlying memory layout and the objects original representation. For example:

SDLT_PRIMITIVE(Point3s, x, y, z)

sdlt::soa1d_container<Point3s> inputDataSet(count);
sdlt::soa1d_container<Point3s> outputDataSet(count);

auto inputData = inputDataSet.const_access();
auto outputData = outputDataSet.access();

#pragma forceinline recursive
#pragma omp simd
for(int i=0; i < count; ++i) {
  Point3s inputElement = inputData[i];
  Point3s result = // transformation of inputElement that is independent of other iterations
                   // can keep algorithm high level using object helper methods
  outputData[i] = result;
}

When a local variable inside the loop is imported from or exported to using that loop's index, the compiler's vectorizor can now access the underlying SIMD friendly data format and when possible perform unit stride loads. If the compiler can prove nothing outside the loop can access the loop's local object, then it can optimize its private representation of the loop object be "Structure of Arrays" (SOA). In our example, the container's underlying memory layout is also SOA and unit stride loads can be generated. The Container also allocates aligned memory and its accessor objects provide the compiler with the correct alignment information for it to optimize code generation accordingly.

This documentation is for SDLT version 2, which extends version 1 by introducing support for n-dimensional containers.

Backwards Compatibility

Public interfaces of version 2 are fully backward compatible with interfaces of version 1.

The backwards compatibility includes:

  • Existing source code compatibility.
    • Any source code using the SDLT v1 public API (non-internal interfaces) can be recompiled against SDLT v2 headers with no changes.
  • Binary compatibility.
    • Because SDLT v2 API's exist in a new name space, sdlt::v2, all ABI linkage should not collide with any existing SDLT v1 ABI's that exist only in sdlt namespace.
    • A binary, dynamically-linked library that uses SDLT v1 internally, can be linked into a program using SDLT v2, and vice versa.
  • Passing SDLT containers or accessors as part of a libraries public API (ABI). When SDLT is used as part of an ABI, that library and the calling code must use the same version of SDLT. They cannot be mixed or matched.

This compatibility doesn't cover internal implementation. Internal implementation for SDLT v1 was updated and unified with parts introduced in v2, so for codes dependent on internal interfaces backwards compatibility is not guaranteed.

Deprecated

The interfaces below are deprecated; use the replacements provided in the table.

Deprecated Interface Deprecated in Version Replaced By
sdlt::fixed_offset<>
v2
sdlt::fixed<>
sdlt::aligned_offset<>
v2
sdlt::aligned<>

Optimization Notice

Intel's compilers may or may not optimize to the same degree for non-Intel microprocessors for optimizations that are not unique to Intel microprocessors. These optimizations include SSE2, SSE3, and SSSE3 instruction sets and other optimizations. Intel does not guarantee the availability, functionality, or effectiveness of any optimization on microprocessors not manufactured by Intel. Microprocessor-dependent optimizations in this product are intended for use with Intel microprocessors. Certain optimizations not specific to Intel microarchitecture are reserved for Intel microprocessors. Please refer to the applicable product User and Reference Guides for more information regarding the specific instruction sets covered by this notice.

Notice revision #20110804

Para obtener información más completa sobre las optimizaciones del compilador, consulte nuestro Aviso de optimización.