Ray-tracing is a classic example of an embarrassingly parallel algorithm; since each pixel is typically independent of the rest, theoretically every pixel can be done in parallel (given enough core
The N-Body problem is a classic example used frequently to demonstrate parallelization and how it improves performance.
I've got a great wife. For my birthday she got me a copy of the newly updated Introduction to Algorithms, 3rd ed. by Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, and Stein.
(This work was done by Vivek Lingegowda during his internship at Intel.)
There is a long discussion talking about the advantages of Procedural Programming vs. the advantages of Object Oriented Programming.
By now, many of you have heard of Intel® Transactional Synchronization Extensions (Intel® TSX).
Tim Mattson (Intel) has authored an extensive series of excellent videos as in introduction to OpenMP*.