I want to learn about which performance counters are related to the performance of a program, and which performance counters can VTune show us?
Please read following tutorial.
Btw this is one of the best introduction to CPU profiling.
Take a look at this text:
One way that I know to see all events that VTune can "monitor" is in the create new analyzis window. It shows all events (with a short description) and let you choose which ones you want to monitor.