This chapter presents some of the certifications required for a board, using the example of the certifications that were obtained for the Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board.
The chapter covers:
- International Directives
- EC Compliance
- US Compliance Requirements
- IC Compliance (Canada)
- Other Certifications
A product that is intended for sale and use in worldwide markets must comply with the applicable international requirements for wireless usage, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), essential safety and usage information, international product environmental compliance requirements (e.g. WEEE, RoHS, REACH, etc.), quality, and, where appropriate, requirements for use in hazardous locations. Products delivered into the European Economic Area (EEA) must comply with the directives of the European Community (EC). Products delivered into North America must comply with the respective directives of each country.
Many countries, including the United States, have legislation based on the EC/EU RoHS rules. The requirements and scope of applicability will, however, differ depending on the specific legislation. All requirements of applicable legislation must be met—based on your geographical distribution.
The rest of this chapter discusses some of the specific requirements.
All the components and solder alloys used must comply with RoHS directive 2011/65/EU. This directive is aimed at preventing all new electrical and electronic equipment placed on the market in the European Economic Area from containing more than agreed levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBE). Other substances will be restricted effective 2019.
- Compliance with the essential requirements of RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU.
- Legal declaration of compliance to Directive 2011/65/EU including indication where applicable of RoHS substances in the product, with the appropriate exemption.
- Maintenance of technical file as evidence of product compliance. File may be comprised of supplier component declarations (e.g. Intel MDDS for Curie™) as well as material test reports.
REACH is a regulation imposed by the EU and stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals. The legislation is managed by the European Chemicals Agency and requires the reporting of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs) where present above reportable thresholds in products.
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is European Community directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The first WEEE Directive (Directive 2002/96/EC) entered into force in February 2003. The directive provided for the creation of collection schemes where consumers return their WEEE free of charge. These schemes aim to increase the recycling and/or re-use of WEEE. In December 2008, the European Commission proposed revising the directive in order to tackle the fast increasing waste stream. The new WEEE Directive, 2012/19/EU, entered into force on 13 August 2012 and became effective on 14 February 2014.
- Compliance with the essential requirements of Directive 2012/19/EU for products that are within its scope.
Other EC Environmental Laws
Many other environmental compliance laws may apply depending on the intended distribution.
Product Safety Directive
The Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board complies with the essential requirements on product safety for EC compliance.
- Compliance with the essential requirements of EU Directive 2001/95/CE on product safety.
- Evaluation against IEC 60950 or IEC 62368.
Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC) Directive
The Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board complies with the EMC directive, which ensures that electrical and electronic equipment does not generate, or is not affected by, electromagnetic disturbance.
- Compliance with the essential requirements of EU Directive 2014/30/EU on EMC.
- Evaluate against IEC 55032 and IEC 55035.
CE Marking Directive
The Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board complies with the CE marking directive.
- Compliance with the essential requirements of EU Directive 93/68/EEC on CE marking
Radio Equipment Directive (RED)
The Radio Equipment Directive (RED) ensures that radio equipment complies with spectrum requirements for wireless transmission and is immune to the environment around it.
- Comply with the essential requirements of RED directive 2014/53/EU on radio equipment.
- If appropriate harmonized standard to RED does not exist, test to harmonized standard for R&TTE Directive and switch to RED when harmonized standard is available.
- Test with a notified body.
US Compliance Requirements
Part 15 of FCC Title 47– Radio Frequency Devices
Devices must comply with Title 47 Part 15, of the Federal Communications Commission rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions (often just referred to as Part 15.209 of the FCC rules). Operation of the device is thus subject to the following two conditions:
- The device may not cause harmful interference
- The device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Class B digital device
The Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of FCC rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential area. The equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communication.
For wireless devices, conformity assessment for FCC Part 15.247 must be completed at an FCC-listed laboratory.
FCC Policy on Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) evaluates the effect of emissions from FCC-regulated transmitters on the quality of the human environment.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have issued recommendations for human exposure to RF electromagnetic fields.
The Arduino 101* (branded Genuino 101* in some countries) board meets the requirements for human exposure detailed in Parts 1 and 2 of the FCC's Rules and Regulations [47 C.F.R. 1.1307(b), 1.1310, 2.1091, 2.1093].
The Commission's requirements are detailed in Parts 1 and 2 of the FCC's Rules and Regulations [47 C.F.R. 1.1307(b), 1.1310, 2.1091, 2.1093].
US National RoHS Rules
As mentioned above, the United States, like many other countries, has legislation based on the EC/EU RoHS rules. The requirements and scope of applicability differ from the EU rules. All requirements of applicable legislation must be met—based on your geographical distribution.
Interference-Causing Equipment Standard ICES-003
ICES-003, Issue 6, sets out the standard requirements for information technology equipment (ITE), including digital apparatus.
Devices must not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions.
- Following the guidelines laid out in ICES-003 Information Technology Equipment (including Digital Apparatus) – Limits and Methods of Measurements
- A test report in accordance with the requirements of the reference publication used from Section 3 Normative Reference Publications.