Pin
Typedefs | Enumerations | Functions | Variables
Pin Thread API

Typedefs

typedef INT32 TLS_KEY
 
typedef UINT32 THREADID
 
typedef UINT64 PIN_THREAD_UID
 
typedef NATIVE_TID OS_THREAD_ID
 
typedef VOID ROOT_THREAD_FUNC(VOID *arg)
 
typedef UINT32 OS_PROCESS_ID
 

Enumerations

enum  {
  TLS_KEY_INTERNAL_EXCEPTION,
  TLS_KEY_CLIENT_FIRST,
  TLS_KEY_CLIENT_LAST = TLS_KEY_CLIENT_FIRST + 63
}
 

Functions

BOOL PIN_SpawnApplicationThread (const CONTEXT *ctxt)
 
BOOL PIN_StopApplicationThreads (THREADID tid)
 
BOOL PIN_IsThreadStoppedInDebugger (THREADID tid)
 
VOID PIN_ResumeApplicationThreads (THREADID tid)
 
UINT32 PIN_GetStoppedThreadCount ()
 
THREADID PIN_GetStoppedThreadId (UINT32 i)
 
const CONTEXTPIN_GetStoppedThreadContext (THREADID tid)
 
CONTEXTPIN_GetStoppedThreadWriteableContext (THREADID tid)
 
OS_THREAD_ID PIN_GetTid ()
 
THREADID PIN_ThreadId ()
 
PIN_THREAD_UID PIN_ThreadUid ()
 
OS_THREAD_ID PIN_GetParentTid ()
 
VOID PIN_Sleep (UINT32 milliseconds)
 
VOID PIN_Yield ()
 
THREADID PIN_SpawnInternalThread (ROOT_THREAD_FUNC *pThreadFunc, VOID *arg, size_t stackSize, PIN_THREAD_UID *pThreadUid)
 
VOID PIN_ExitThread (INT32 exitCode)
 
BOOL PIN_IsApplicationThread ()
 
BOOL PIN_WaitForThreadTermination (const PIN_THREAD_UID &threadUid, UINT32 milliseconds, INT32 *pExitCode)
 
TLS_KEY PIN_CreateThreadDataKey (DESTRUCTFUN destruct_func)
 
BOOL PIN_DeleteThreadDataKey (TLS_KEY key)
 
BOOL PIN_SetThreadData (TLS_KEY key, const VOID *data, THREADID threadId)
 
VOID * PIN_GetThreadData (TLS_KEY key, THREADID threadId)
 

Variables

const TLS_KEY INVALID_TLS_KEY = (-1)
 
const UINT32 MAX_CLIENT_TLS_KEYS = (TLS_KEY_CLIENT_LAST - TLS_KEY_CLIENT_FIRST + 1)
 
const THREADID INVALID_THREADID = static_cast< THREADID >(-1)
 
const PIN_THREAD_UID INVALID_PIN_THREAD_UID = static_cast< PIN_THREAD_UID >(-1)
 
const OS_THREAD_ID INVALID_OS_THREAD_ID = INVALID_NATIVE_TID
 

Detailed Description

A group of Pin threading primitives. These APIs are available in any thread, including any internal thread spawned by the tool. They allows the user to stop all application threads, examine and modify their state and then resume them. It is available in analysis routines and internal threads

Typedef Documentation

◆ OS_PROCESS_ID

typedef UINT32 OS_PROCESS_ID

Process ID assigned by OS.

◆ OS_THREAD_ID

typedef NATIVE_TID OS_THREAD_ID

Thread ID assigned by OS.

◆ PIN_THREAD_UID

typedef UINT64 PIN_THREAD_UID

Unique thread ID which, unlike THREADID identifier, is not reused by Pin after the thread termination. The uniqueness of this identifier allows to use it in the PIN_WaitForThreadTermination() function which monitors the thread's state.

◆ ROOT_THREAD_FUNC

typedef VOID ROOT_THREAD_FUNC(VOID *arg)

Main (starting) function of a thread.

Parameters
[in]argargument of the main thread function, as specified by the thread creator.

◆ THREADID

typedef UINT32 THREADID

Thread ID assigned by PIN.

◆ TLS_KEY

typedef INT32 TLS_KEY

Type that represents TLS key - a unique identifier of a slot in the thread local storage.

Enumeration Type Documentation

◆ anonymous enum

anonymous enum

Keys to access client data in the thread local storage

Function Documentation

◆ PIN_CreateThreadDataKey()

TLS_KEY PIN_CreateThreadDataKey ( DESTRUCTFUN  destruct_func)

Allocate a new TLS key and associate it with a given data destruction function. Upon successful return, any thread of the process can use PIN_SetThreadData() and PIN_GetThreadData() functions to store and retrieve values in its own slot, referenced by the allocated key. The initial value associated with the key in all threads is NULL. At the thread exit, if a key has a non-NULL pointer to the cleanup (destruction) function, and the thread has a non-NULL value in the corresponding slot, the function is called with the slot's value as its sole argument. The order in which destructors are invoked is undefined.

Parameters
[in]destructFunoptional parameter that specifies data destruction function to be associated with the new key. This function is called just after notifying the client about VM thread exit. By default (NULL destructor), the data is not cleaned up.
Returns
allocated TLS key, upon success; -1, if number of already allocated keys reached the MAX_CLIENT_TLS_KEYS limit.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_DeleteThreadDataKey()

BOOL PIN_DeleteThreadDataKey ( TLS_KEY  key)

Release TLS key, allocated by a previous call to the PIN_CreateThreadDataKey() function. The function has no effect if specified key is not allocated/already released. After the key is released, a client should not attempt to use it for any further TLS access. Doing otherwise results in undefined behavior.

Parameters
[in]keyTLS key to be released
Returns
TRUE, upon success; FALSE, if if specified key is invalid
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_ExitThread()

VOID PIN_ExitThread ( INT32  exitCode)

Terminate the current thread.

This function is intended for threads created by the tool (see PIN_SpawnInternalThread()) and is not normally used for threads created by the application, since application threads exit automatically when Pin executes a thread termination system call on their behalf.

If this call is made on an application thread, Pin will make any callbacks registered for thread exit before the thread is terminated.

Parameters
[in]exitCodeexit code of the thread to be returned by the PIN_WaitForThreadTermination() function.
Returns
the function never returns.
Note
The vm lock is obtained during the call of this API.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: All

◆ PIN_GetParentTid()

OS_THREAD_ID PIN_GetParentTid ( )

Get system identifier of the parent thread, if known.

Returns
system ID of the parent thread or INVALID_OS_THREAD_ID if the parent thread is unknown. On Windows the result is always INVALID_OS_THREAD_ID, since there is, in general, no well defined parent child relationship between threads.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_GetStoppedThreadContext()

const CONTEXT* PIN_GetStoppedThreadContext ( THREADID  tid)

This function returns the CONTEXT (register state) of a stopped application thread. The caller can inspect the stopped thread's register state via PIN_GetContextReg() and related API's.

Parameters
[in]tidPin ID of a stopped thread.
Returns
The CONTEXT for thread tid or NULL if that thread is not stopped.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_GetStoppedThreadCount()

UINT32 PIN_GetStoppedThreadCount ( )

This function can be called in two scenarios. First, it may be called after stopping threads with PIN_StopApplicationThreads(), in which case it tells the number of application threads that were stopped with that API.

Alternatively, this function may be called from a call-back that is registered via PIN_AddDebugInterpreter(). In this case, it tells the number of application threads that are stopped in the debugger.

Returns
The number of stopped application threads. Returns zero if threads are not currently stopped.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_GetStoppedThreadId()

THREADID PIN_GetStoppedThreadId ( UINT32  i)

This function returns the Pin thread ID of a stopped application thread.

Parameters
[in]iAn index in the range [0, n-1], where n is the value returned by PIN_GetStoppedThreadCount().
Returns
The ID of the indexed thread, which is currently stopped. Returns INVALID_THREADID if i is out of range.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_GetStoppedThreadWriteableContext()

CONTEXT* PIN_GetStoppedThreadWriteableContext ( THREADID  tid)

This function is similar to PIN_GetStoppedThreadContext(), but it returns a CONTEXT that may be modified. The caller may modify the stopped thread's register state via PIN_SetContextReg() and related API's. The stopped thread uses the new register state when it resumes.

Parameters
[in]tidPin ID of a stopped thread.
Returns
The CONTEXT for thread tid or NULL if that thread is not stopped.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_GetThreadData()

VOID* PIN_GetThreadData ( TLS_KEY  key,
THREADID  threadId 
)

Get the value stored in the specified TLS slot of the thread.

Parameters
[in]keyTLS key, referencing the slot, whose value is requested. The key should be allocated by a previous call to the PIN_CreateThreadDataKey() function.
[in]threadIdThread ID assigned by pin of the thread for which TLS access is desired, not necessarily the current thread. This ID can be obtained by the PIN_ThreadId() function call or received as the value of the IARG_THREAD_ID argument.
Returns
value stored in the specified slot of the thread, if specified key is currently allocated; NULL, if specified key is invalid or the given thread is not yet registered in the pin thread database; undefined, if specified key is valid, but it is not currently allocated
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_GetTid()

OS_THREAD_ID PIN_GetTid ( )

Threading API for clients

Get system identifier of the current thread.

Returns
system ID of the current thread.
Availability:
Mode: JIT & Probe
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_IsApplicationThread()

BOOL PIN_IsApplicationThread ( )

Check to see if the current thread is created by the application or it is an internal thread spawned by the tool or Pin itself (see PIN_SpawnInternalThread()).

Returns
TRUE, if this function is called in a thread created by the application; FALSE, if this function is called in an internal thread spawned by the tool or Pin.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: All

◆ PIN_IsThreadStoppedInDebugger()

BOOL PIN_IsThreadStoppedInDebugger ( THREADID  tid)

This function returns true if the thread with denoted by 'tid' given by its arguments was stopped in the debugger. Note: If there is no thread with ID 'tid', this function returns false.

Parameters
[in]tidThe Pin thread ID to check
Returns
TRUE if the specified thread was stopped in the debugger. FALSE indicates that the thread is either running, or doesn't exist
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_ResumeApplicationThreads()

VOID PIN_ResumeApplicationThreads ( THREADID  tid)

This function may be called after a successful call to PIN_StopApplicationThreads() in order to resume execution of the stopped application threads. If a thread's CONTEXT was changed while it was stopped, it resumes with the new CONTEXT.

When used in application thread, it is highly recommended to call it in the same analysis function that called PIN_StopApplicationThreads(). Deferring the call could result in a deadlock when the thread later tries to acquire a lock held by other application thread it suspended.

Parameters
[in]tidThe Pin thread ID of the calling thread. Should be called in the same thread as corresponding PIN_StopApplicationThreads()
Note
The vm lock is obtained during the call of this API.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_SetThreadData()

BOOL PIN_SetThreadData ( TLS_KEY  key,
const VOID *  data,
THREADID  threadId 
)

Store specified value in the specified TLS slot of the thread.

Parameters
[in]keyTLS key, referencing the slot, where the value will be stored upon successful return. The key should be allocated by a previous call to the PIN_CreateThreadDataKey() function.
[in]datavalue to be stored in the TLS slot of the current thread.
[in]threadIdThread ID assigned by pin of the thread for which TLS access is desired, not necessarily the current thread. This ID can be obtained by the PIN_ThreadId() function call or received as the value of the IARG_THREAD_ID argument.
Returns
TRUE, if specified key is currently allocated; FALSE, if specified key is invalid or the given thread is not yet registered in the pin thread database; undefined, if specified key is valid, but it is not currently allocated
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_Sleep()

VOID PIN_Sleep ( UINT32  milliseconds)

Delay execution of the current thread for the specified time interval.

Parameters
[in]millisecondstime interval, in milliseconds.
Availability:
Mode: JIT & Probe
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_SpawnApplicationThread()

BOOL PIN_SpawnApplicationThread ( const CONTEXT ctxt)

Start a new thread which will begin to execute with the register state from the context. At least the flags register in the context must be sensible (even if all of the thread's registers will be set in the thread start callback).

This function requires the VM lock to operate, so will acquire and release it if it is not already held.

Parameters
[in]ctxtcontext for the new thread.
Returns
TRUE if a new thread was sucessfully spawned, FALSE if not.
Note
The vm lock is obtained during the call of this API.
This function must be used on applications that are running with the (newer) NPTL version of pthread library. Running this function on an application that is running with the (older) LinuxThreads version of pthread can prevent PIN from shuting down the VM when the application exits.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_SpawnInternalThread()

THREADID PIN_SpawnInternalThread ( ROOT_THREAD_FUNC pThreadFunc,
VOID *  arg,
size_t  stackSize,
PIN_THREAD_UID pThreadUid 
)

Create a new tool internal thread in the current process.

It is safe to create internal threads in the tool's main procedure and spawn new internal threads from existing ones. However new internal threads cannot be created in any other places, like Pin callbacks and analysis routines in application threads.
In order to ensure graceful termination of internal threads on the application's exit, the tool can use the following recommended method:

Many of Pin's APIs, that are primarily intended for application threads, are also available in internal threads. Look at the API's description ( Availability paragraph) or the description of the corresponding group of APIs to check whether a specific API is available in internal threads.

Parameters
[in]pThreadFuncmain (starting) function of the thread
[in]argargument of the main thread function
[in]stackSizesize of the thread's stack, in bytes. The function rounds this value up to the page size. If this parameter is zero, DEFAULT_THREAD_STACK_SIZE bytes will be allocated for the stack.
[out]pThreadUidpointer to a variable that receives the unique identifier of the new thread in Pin. This identifier can be used in the PIN_WaitForThreadTermination() function to monitor the thread's state. If the caller specifies NULL for this parameter, the unique thread ID is not returned.
Returns
ID of the new thread in Pin or INVALID_THREADID if the thread creation failed.
Note
The PIN_SpawnInternalThread() API is the only way for tools to create a private thread in the Pin-controlled process. System services, like CreateThread() in Windows or clone() in Linux should not be used for this purpose.
Pin makes an effort to hide internal threads from the application so, usually, a tool's threads do not interfere with the application. However, the complete transparency of internal threads is not guaranteed, so tools should only use them when their instrumentation tasks cannot be done (effectively) by analysis routines within application threads. For example, a need to execute Windows services (Win32 APIs) may be a reason for creating a private thread in the tool. All Win32 APIs that do not modify the application's resources can be freely used in internal threads. In application threads, on the contrary, using Win32 APIs in analysis routines and Pin callbacks is not supported due to possible reentrancy and isolation problems.
Internal threads remain blocked inside Pin until PIN_StartProgram() is called and Pin completes some initialization. On Linux, internal threads start running pThreadFunc before Pin executes the first application instruction. On Windows all threads, including Pin internal threads, start executing from the system runtime before they execute the pThreadFunc function. However, the system runtime blocks threads until the application has finished initializing its DLL's (i.e. until the application releases the internal "loader lock"). As a result, Pin internal threads on Windows do not execute pThreadFunc until after the application finishes executing the DLL initialization code. On macOS* in launch mode internal threads start running pThreadFun only after the application loader initialize the main executable. Hence don't expect the internal thread to start running after calling this function from the tool main() function in launch mode.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows, macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_StopApplicationThreads()

BOOL PIN_StopApplicationThreads ( THREADID  tid)

Pin client functions to temporarily stop all application threads, examine their state and resume.

This function may be called by either an application thread or by a Pin internal thread to stop all other application threads at a "safe point". Threads that are stopped at a safe point are always stopped in between traces, so the caller is guaranteed that they are not stopped in the middle of any analysis functions or call-back functions. Once stopped, the calling thread can examine and modify the registers of the stopped threads.

If this function is called by an internal thread, it stops all application threads. If it is called by an application thread, it stops all other application threads. When called by an application thread, this function may be called from an analysis function, but not from a call-back function.

Since this function blocks until other application threads finish their current trace, the caller must not hold any locks that the other threads might try to acquire. Doing so could result in a deadlock.

Parameters
[in]tidThe Pin thread ID of the calling thread.
Returns
TRUE if the target threads are successfully stopped. FALSE indicates that some other thread is trying to stop the calling thread. In such a case, the caller should return from its analysis function to avoid a deadlock.
Note
The vm lock is obtained during the call of this API.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: IA-32 and Intel(R) 64 architectures

◆ PIN_ThreadId()

THREADID PIN_ThreadId ( )

Get identifier of the current thread in Pin.

Returns
ID of the current thread in Pin or INVALID_THREADID upon failure. Usually, the failure means that the function is called in a private tool's thread which is created by a direct call to a system service and not via the PIN_SpawnInternalThread() function.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_ThreadUid()

PIN_THREAD_UID PIN_ThreadUid ( )

Get unique identifier of the current thread in Pin.

Returns
Unique ID of the current thread in Pin or INVALID_PIN_THREAD_UID upon failure. Usually, the failure means that the function is called in a private tool's thread which is created by a direct call to a system service and not via the PIN_SpawnInternalThread() function.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

◆ PIN_WaitForThreadTermination()

BOOL PIN_WaitForThreadTermination ( const PIN_THREAD_UID threadUid,
UINT32  milliseconds,
INT32 *  pExitCode 
)

Delay the current thread until the specified thread is terminated or the time-out interval elapses.

To avoid deadlocks, the caller should not hold any lock that the target thread may try to acquire. For example, this function can be safely used in the PREPARE_FOR_FINI_CALLBACK callback if it is registered by the PIN_AddPrepareForFiniFunction(). However, it is not recommended to use this function in other Pin callbacks if the target thread is an application thread or an internal thread that uses Pin APIs. This is because most of Pin APIs and callbacks are serialized by the same internal lock.
This function can not be used to wait for the termination of the calling thread.

Parameters
[in]threadUidunique identifier of the thread to be waited for termination, provided by PIN_SpawnInternalThread() or PIN_ThreadUid().
[in]millisecondstime-out interval, in milliseconds. If this parameter is zero, the function tests the thread's state and returns immediately. If this parameter is PIN_INFINITE_TIMEOUT, the time-out interval never elapses.
[out]pExitCodeoptional pointer to a variable that receives exit code of the thread. If this pointer is NULL or the thread has not terminated, the exit code is not returned.
Returns
TRUE - the thread has terminated, FALSE - the specified time-out interval elapsed or threadUid is not valid or corresponds to current thread or specified thread is not yet started when application shutdown begins.
Availability:
Mode: JIT
O/S: Linux, Windows
CPU: All

◆ PIN_Yield()

VOID PIN_Yield ( )

Yield the processor to another thread.

Availability:
Mode: JIT & Probe
O/S: Linux, Windows & macOS*
CPU: All

Variable Documentation

◆ INVALID_OS_THREAD_ID

const OS_THREAD_ID INVALID_OS_THREAD_ID = INVALID_NATIVE_TID

Invalid value of the OS_THREAD_ID type.

◆ INVALID_PIN_THREAD_UID

const PIN_THREAD_UID INVALID_PIN_THREAD_UID = static_cast< PIN_THREAD_UID >(-1)

Invalid value of the PIN_THREAD_UID type.

◆ INVALID_THREADID

const THREADID INVALID_THREADID = static_cast< THREADID >(-1)

Invalid value of the THREADID type.

◆ INVALID_TLS_KEY

const TLS_KEY INVALID_TLS_KEY = (-1)

Invalid value of the TLS_KEY type.

◆ MAX_CLIENT_TLS_KEYS

const UINT32 MAX_CLIENT_TLS_KEYS = (TLS_KEY_CLIENT_LAST - TLS_KEY_CLIENT_FIRST + 1)

Maximum number of TLS keys that can be allocated by tool